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CHAPTER RECAP NATURE OF HUMAN RELATIONS What motivates employees to perform on the job is the focus of human relations, the study of the behavior of individuals and groups in organizational settings. The field of human relations has become increasingly important as businesses strive to understand how to motivate their increasingly diverse employees to be more effective, boost workplace morale, and maximize employees' productivity and creativity. Motivation is an inner drive that directs behavior toward goals. A goal is the satisfaction of some need, and a need is the difference between a desired state and an actual state. Motivation explains why people behave as they do. One important aspect of human relations is morale --an employee's attitude toward his or her job, employer, and colleagues. High morale contributes to high levels of productivity and employee loyalty; low morale may cause high rates of absenteeism and turnover (when employees quit or are fired and must be replaced by new employees). HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Throughout the twentieth century, researchers have conducted numerous studies to try to identify ways to motivate workers and increase productivity. Time and motion studies conducted by Frederick W. Taylor and by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth at the turn of the century analyzed how workers perform specific work tasks in an effort to improve the employees' productivity. These efforts led to the application of scientific management, which focused on improving work methods, tools, and performance standards. According to the Classical theory of motivation , money is the sole motivator for workers. To improve productivity, Taylor thought that managers should break each job down into its component tasks (specialization), determine the best way to perform each task, and specify the output to be achieved by a worker performing the task. Taylor also believed that incentives motivate employees to be more productive. We can still see Taylor's ideas in practice today in the use of mathematical models, statistics, and incentives. Taylor and most early twentieth-century managers generally believed that money and job security were the primary motivators of employees. In the Hawthorne studies, Elton Mayo and a team of researchers tried to determine what physical conditions in the workplace, such as light and noise levels stimulate employees to be most productive. Their studies revealed that social and psychological factors significantly affect productivity and morale and that managers who understand employees' needs, beliefs, and expectations are most successful in motivating them. The Hawthorne studies marked the beginning of a concern for human relations in the workplace. THEORIES OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
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