Managing the quantity (through hiring and firing) and quality (through training, compensating,
and so on) of employees is an important business function.
THE NATURE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Previously, human resources was defined as labor, the physical and mental abilities that people
use to produce goods and services.
Human resources management (HRM)
refers to all the
activities involved in determining an organization's human resources needs as well as acquiring,
training, and compensating people to fill those needs. Human resource managers are concerned
with maximizing the satisfaction of employees and motivating them to meet organizational
objectives productively. HRM has increased in importance over the last few decades, in part
because managers have developed a better understanding of human relations through the work of
Maslow, Herzberg, and others. Moreover, the nature of the human resources themselves is
PLANNING FOR HUMAN RESOURCES NEEDS
When planning and developing strategies for reaching the organization's objectives, a company
must consider whether it will have the human resources necessary to carry out its plans. After
determining how many employees and what skills are needed to satisfy the overall plans, human
resources managers ascertain how many employees the company currently has and how many
will be retiring or otherwise leaving the organization during the planning period. The human
resources manager then forecasts how many more employees the company will need to hire and
what qualifications they must have. HRM planning also requires forecasting the supply of people
in the work force who will have the necessary qualifications to meet the organization's future
needs. Next, the human resources manager develops a strategy for satisfying the organization's
human resources needs.
Human resources managers analyze the jobs within the firm so that they can match the human
resources to the available jobs.
determines, through observation and study, pertinent
information about a job--the specific tasks that comprise the job; the knowledge, skills, and
abilities necessary to perform the job; and the environment in which the job will be performed. A
is a formal, written explanation of a specific job and usually includes job title,
tasks to be performed, relationship with other jobs, physical and mental skills required, duties,
responsibilities, and working conditions. A
describes the qualifications
necessary for a specific job in terms of education, experience, personal characteristics, and
physical characteristics. These analyses help human resources managers develop recruiting
materials such as newspaper advertisements.