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chapter3_lecture - How Cells Are Put Together Chapter 3...

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How Cells Are Put Together Chapter 3
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Cell Theory Every organism is composed of one or more cells Cell is smallest unit with properties of life Continuity of life arises from growth and division of single cells
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Smallest unit of life Is highly organized for metabolism Senses and responds to environment Has potential to reproduce Cell
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Structure of Cells All start out life with: Plasma membrane Region where DNA is stored Cytoplasm Two types: Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
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DNA in nucleoid cytoplasm plasma membrane Bacterial cell (prokaryotic) Fig. 3-1a, p.39 Types of Cells
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DNA in nucleus cytoplasm plasma membrane Plant cell (eukaryotic) Fig. 3-1b, p.39 Types of Cells
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DNA in nucleus cytoplasm plasma membrane Animal cell (eukaryotic) Fig. 3-1c, p.39 Types of Cells
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Fig. 3-4, p.41 Most Cells Are Really Small
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Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bigger cell, less surface area per unit volume Above a certain size, material cannot move in or out of cell fast enough
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0.5 1.0 1.5 0.79 0.06 3.14 7.07 0.52 1.77 diameter (cm): surface area (cm 2 ): volume (cm 3 ): surface- to-volume ratio: 13.17:1 6.04:1 3.99:1 Fig. 3-5, p.41
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Create detailed images of something that is too small to see Light microscopes Simple or compound Electron microscopes Transmission EM or Scanning EM Microscopes
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Limitations of Light Microscopy Cells must be thin enough for light to pass through Structures are usually stained Light microscopes can see details 200 nm in size
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Fig. 3-2a, p.40 Microscopes
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Ocular lens enlarges primary image formed by objective lenses. Path of light rays (bottom to top) to eye Prism (directs rays to ocular lens) Objective lenses (closest to specimen) form primary image.
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