chapter3_lecture - How Cells Are Put Together Chapter 3...

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Unformatted text preview: How Cells Are Put Together Chapter 3 Cell Theory • Every organism is composed of one or more cells • Cell is smallest unit with properties of life • Continuity of life arises from growth and division of single cells • Smallest unit of life • Is highly organized for metabolism • Senses and responds to environment • Has potential to reproduce Cell Structure of Cells All start out life with: – Plasma membrane – Region where DNA is stored – Cytoplasm Two types: – Prokaryotic – Eukaryotic DNA in nucleoid cytoplasm plasma membrane Bacterial cell (prokaryotic) Fig. 3-1a, p.39 Types of Cells DNA in nucleus cytoplasm plasma membrane Plant cell (eukaryotic) Fig. 3-1b, p.39 Types of Cells DNA in nucleus cytoplasm plasma membrane Animal cell (eukaryotic) Fig. 3-1c, p.39 Types of Cells Fig. 3-4, p.41 Most Cells Are Really Small Surface-to-Volume Ratio • Bigger cell, less surface area per unit volume • Above a certain size, material cannot move in or out of cell fast enough 0.5 1.0 1.5 0.79 0.06 3.14 7.07 0.52 1.77 diameter (cm): surface area (cm 2 ): volume (cm 3 ): surface- to-volume ratio: 13.17:1 6.04:1 3.99:1 Fig. 3-5, p.41 • Create detailed images of something that is too small to see • Light microscopes – Simple or compound • Electron microscopes – Transmission EM or Scanning EM Microscopes Limitations of Light Microscopy • Cells must be thin enough for light to pass through • Structures are usually stained • Light microscopes can see details 200 nm in size Fig. 3-2a, p.40 Microscopes Ocular lens enlarges primary image formed by objective lenses. Path of light rays (bottom to top) to eye Prism (directs rays to ocular lens) Objective lenses (closest to specimen) form primary image....
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2011 for the course BIO 1002 taught by Professor Bush during the Fall '08 term at University of Minnesota Morris.

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chapter3_lecture - How Cells Are Put Together Chapter 3...

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