chapter4_Lecture - How Cells Work Chapter 4 Beer, Enzymes...

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How Cells Work Chapter 4
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Beer, Enzymes and Your Liver Alcohol is toxic Cells in liver break down alcohol to nontoxic compounds Breakdown is accelerated by enzymes Heavy drinking damages liver and other organs
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Impacts, Issues Video Alcohol, Enzymes, and Your Liver Alcohol, Enzymes, and Your Liver
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Energy Laws Energy: the capacity to do work Total amount of energy in the universe is constant Energy flows from higher to lower energy forms
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ENERGY LOST With each conversion, there is a one-way flow of a bit of energy back to the environment. ENERGY GAINED Sunlight energy reaches environments on Earth. Producers secure some and convert it to stored forms of energy. They and all other organisms convert stored energy to forms that can drive cellular work. ENERGY LOST Energy continually flows from the sun. Fig. 4-1, p.59
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ATP 3 phosphate groups nucleotide base (adenine) sugar (ribose) Main energy carrier in cells Can give up phosphate group to another molecule Phosphorylation energizes molecules to react
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The Cell’s Energy Currency ATP couples energy inputs and outputs ATP/ADP cycle regenerates ATP energy input ADP + P i ATP energy output
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reactions that release energy reactions that require energy cellular work (e.g., synthesis, breakdown, or rearrangement of substances; contraction of muscle cells; active transport across a cell membrane) ATP ADP + P i ATP Fig. 4-2, p.59 base sugar three phosphate groups
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chapter4_Lecture - How Cells Work Chapter 4 Beer, Enzymes...

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