chapter11_Lecture - Studying and Manipulating Genomes...

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Studying and Manipulating Genomes Chapter 11
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Golden Rice or Frankenfood? Scientists transferred daffodil genes into rice Rice with beta-carotene may help prevent vitamin A deficiencies Opponents fear unforeseen consequences of creating genetically modified organisms
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Impacts, Issues Video Golden Rice, or Frankenfood
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Genetic Changes Humans have changed the genetics of other species for thousands of years Artificial selection of plants and animals Natural processes also at work Mutation, crossing over
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Genetic Engineering Genes are isolated, modified, and inserted into an organism Made possible by recombinant DNA technology Cut up DNA and recombine pieces Amplify modified pieces
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Discovery of Restriction Enzymes Hamilton Smith studied how bacterium Haemophilus influenzae cut invading viral DNA Discovered that bacteria have an enzyme that chops up viral DNA
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Specific Cuts Restriction enzymes cut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence Cuts leave “sticky ends” on DNA fragments that pair with matching cuts
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Making Recombinant DNA 5’ 3’ G C T T A A A A T T C G G A A T T C C T T A A G 3’ 5’ one DNA fragment another DNA fragment 3’ 5’
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Making Recombinant DNA nick 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ G A A T T C C T T A A G nick G A A T T C C T T A A G DNA ligase action
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Restriction enzymes Discovery of Restriction Enzymes
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Base-pairing of DNA fragments Base-Pairing
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Using Plasmids Plasmid: a small circle of bacterial DNA Foreign DNA inserted into plasmid is replicated and distributed along with plasmid Plasmid b ecomes a cloning vector delivers DNA into another cell
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Cloning Vectors
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a A restriction enzyme cuts a specific base sequence everywhere it occurs in DNA. c The same enzyme cuts the same sequence in plasmid DNA. d The plasmid DNA also has sticky ends e The DNA fragments and plasmid DNA are mixed with DNA ligase. f The result? A collection of recombinant plasmids that incorporate foreign DNA fragments. g Host cells that can divide rapidly take up the recombinant plasmids. b The DNA fragments have sticky ends.
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2011 for the course BIO 1002 taught by Professor Bush during the Fall '08 term at University of Minnesota Morris.

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chapter11_Lecture - Studying and Manipulating Genomes...

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