chapter29_Lecture - Community Structure and Biodiversity...

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Community Structure and Biodiversity Chapter 29
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Fire Ants South American fire ants introduced into US in 1930s No predators or pathogens to control populations Spreading and replacing native fire ants Biological control agents being tested
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Impacts, Issues Video Fire Ants in the Pants
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Community All populations that live together in a habitat Type of habitat shapes community’s structure
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Factors Shaping Community Structure Climate and topography Available foods and resources Adaptive traits Species interactions Overall pattern of population sizes
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Adaptive Traits
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Niche A description of the way a species utilizes its habitat - Fundamental niche - Realized niche
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Realized and Fundamental Niches Fundamental niche Theoretical niche occupied in the absence of any competing species Realized niche Niche a species actually occupies Realized niche is some fraction of the fundamental niche
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Species Interactions Most interactions are neutral; they have no effect on either species Commensalism helps one species and has no effect on the other Mutualism helps both species
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Species Interactions Interspecific competition has a negative effect on both species Predation and parasitism both benefit one species at a cost to another
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Symbiosis Living together for at least some part of the life cycle Commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism are forms of symbiosis
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Mutualism Both species benefit Some are obligatory; partners depend upon each other Yucca plants and yucca moth Mycorrhizal fungi and plants Anemone fish and anemone
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Yucca and Yucca Moth Example of an obligatory mutualism Each species of yucca is pollinated only by one species of moth Moth larvae can grow only in that one species of yucca
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Mycorrhizae Obligatory mutualism between fungus and plant root Fungus supplies mineral ions to root Root supplies sugars to fungus
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Mutualism
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Competition Interspecific: between species Intraspecific: between members of the same species Intraspecific competition is most intense
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Forms of Competition Exploitative competition Species have equal access to resource; compete to exploit resource Interference competition One species prevents another from using resource
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Interference Competition
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2011 for the course BIO 1002 taught by Professor Bush during the Fall '08 term at University of Minnesota Morris.

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chapter29_Lecture - Community Structure and Biodiversity...

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