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chapter30_lecture - Ecosystems Chapter 30 Bye-Bye Bayou...

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Ecosystems Chapter 30
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Bye-Bye Bayou Louisiana’s coastal wetlands are disappearing Global warming contributes to wetland’s demise Sea levels rising worldwide Burning fossil fuels raises global temperature
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Impacts, Issues Video Bye-Bye, Blue Bayou
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Ecosystem An array of organisms and their physical environment, interconnected through a one-way flow of energy and cycling of raw materials
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Modes of Nutrition Photoautotrophs Capture sunlight or chemical energy Primary producers Heterotrophs Extract energy from other organisms or organic wastes Consumers, decomposers, detritivores
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Simple Ecosystem Model Energy input from sun Nutrient Cycling Producers Autotrophs (plants and other self-feeding organisms) Consumers Heterotrophs (animals, most fungi, many protists, many bacteria) Energy output (mainly metabolic heat)
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Consumers Herbivores Carnivores Parasites Omnivores Decomposers Detritivores SPRING rodents, rabbits fruits insects birds SUMMER rodents, rabbits fruits insects birds seasonal variation in the diet of an omnivore (red fox)
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Seasonal Diet of Red Fox
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Trophic Levels Feeding relationships All organisms at a trophic level are the same number of steps away from the energy input into the system Autotrophs are producers closest to energy input first trophic level
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Trophic Levels 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st Fourth-level consumers (heterotrophs): Top carnivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers Third-level consumers (heterotrophs): Carnivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers Second-level consumers (heterotrophs): Carnivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers First-level consumers (heterotrophs): Herbivores, parasites, detritivores, decomposers Primary producers (autotrophs): Photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs
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marsh hawk crow garter snake cutworm flowering plants fifth trophic level top carnivore (fourth-level consumer) fourth trophic level carnivore (third-level consumer) third trophic level carnivore (second-level consumer) second trophic level herbivore (primary consumer) first trophic level autotroph (primary producer) Fig. 30-3, p.528
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Two Types of Food Webs Producers (photosynthesizers) Energy Input: Energy Input: herbivores carnivores decomposers decomposers detritivores energy in organic wastes, remains Energy Output Energy Output energy losses as metabolic heat and as net export from ecosystem Producers (photosynthesizers) decomposers detritivores Transfers: Transfers: Grazing Food Web Detrital Food Web energy in organic wastes, remains energy losses as metabolic heat and as net export from ecosystem
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Food Chain A straight-line sequence of who eats whom Simple food chains are rare in nature marsh hawk upland sandpiper garter snake cutworm plants
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