2 Bossism, Graft, and Reform

2 Bossism, Graft, and Reform - takes on Tammany(Tweed...

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Bossism, Graft, and Reform
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1900: 8 largest cities were 32% foreign born 72% f.b. or with at least one f.b. parent Diversity of Bosses Richard Croker (NYC Democrat) George Cox (Cincinnati Republican)
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Tammany Hall, 14 th Street (1914) Boss, District Captain, Ward Boss
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Traditional Interpretation (middle-class perspective) James Bryce (British Diplomat), The American Commonwealth , 1888 "There is no denying that the government of cities is the one conspicuous failure of the United States.“ Corruption of democracy – graft, vote buying
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Thomas Nast ( Harper’s Weekly
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Unformatted text preview: , Nov 11, 1871) takes on Tammany (Tweed) Revisionist Interpretation Boss system benefits access for immigrants providing order in chaotic environment responsive to poor (Unequal access – African Americans as outsiders) “A Journal of Civilization” – Harper’s Good Government Reformers- National Municipal League Model city charters with reforms: non-partisan ballots, at-large voting, city manager, civil service exams Galveston Flood, 1900 6,000 dead; 10,000 homeless Commission Plan, 1901...
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