Bourgeoisie = Business people.
Guild-master = Workshop owner before industrialization. A bourgeois.
Journeymen = skilled workers employed by the bourgeoisie before industrialization]
[Internet sources given below the title of each section]
Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848)
[Corrected version of http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/treatise/communist_manifesto/manintro.htm .
From the English edition of 1888, edited by Friedrich Engels.]
A spectre is haunting Europe -- the spectre of Communism. All the Powers of old Europe have entered into a
holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Czar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German
Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as Communistic by its opponents in power? Where
the Opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Communism, against the more advanced
opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries?
Two things result from this fact.
I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European Powers to be itself a Power.
II. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their
aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the Spectre of Communism with a Manifesto of the party
To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London, and sketched the following
Manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages.
Part I. Bourgeois and Proletarians [Complete]
[ http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/treatise/communist_manifesto/manone.htm ]
[A. "The history of all hitherto existing societies.
The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles.
Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor
and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now
open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the
common ruin of the contending classes.
In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various
orders, a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in
the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these
classes, again, subordinate gradations.