Unformatted text preview: LS1 Final Study Questions 1. Name and describe three important ecological roles of Study Questions
parasites keep one population from growing too large mutualists help plants absorb more with mycorrhizae fungi. decomposers lignin and cellulose. saprophytes those that digest dead material n+n > nuclei do not2. What is the difference between the n + n and the 2N condition? Describe where in the fuse, 2N > nucleus fusion n+n when hyphae fuse life cycle of the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota those conditions occur. and spore producing body 3. 2N > after karyogamy, What is the difference between plasmogamy and karyogamy? fusion of nuclei or not right before spore produced 4. Why is SA/V ratio such an important factor in the morphology of fungi? useful to absorb nutrients,one cell wide hy morphological structure 5. What is the difference between AMF and EMF mycorrhizae? EMF covers root tips, but not penetrate the cells, found in temperate, mostly in basidiomycota; AMF penetrate into root cells, key in the land 6. Describe how isotope labeling experiments can be used to test hypotheses on plant- resemble ancestral forms, might evolve from a parasitic; 80% trace nutrients N/P; C fungal associations. both directions need to be
discussed, to say its mutualistic 7. What morphological traits indicate that choanoflagellates are related to sponges? 8. What is the difference between diploblasty and triploblasty? Which animal groups are cnidarians, ctenophora diploblastic? 9. Why is bilateral symmetry considered an important adaptive step in animal evolution? it allows for cephalization, to have brain to think, to cooridinate 10. Identify which of the following materials are denser than water: Muscle, fat, bone, insect exoskeleton, mollusk shell, oil. 11. Describe two strategies that animals can use to make themselves buoyant. Describe and an example of each. bladder gas filled to decrease the density, ex: fish 12. Describe three strategies that animals can use to fall more slowly. Describe an increase drags; example of each. projections larvae, plankton ex dandellion seed small size
have more fat, ; to be small, ex: planula larvae; reduced bones and shells octupos flagella used to beat water current; sessile 13. In the Stokes equation, what three important parameters determine how fast an 16. sponge choanpcytes, many small entrance openings, flagella to c object sinks? density, size, viscosity tunicate pharyngeal gill slits, has a muscous sheet 14. Can organisms be buoyant in air? Why or why not?
not possible, the lightest material biologically possible denser than air more food in water compared with that in the air food particles float 16. Describe filter feeding more readily in water 15. Why is filter/suspension feeding more common in the water than on land? bivalves two siphons to bring in water, which passes through gills's some thin memberanes to trap food bryozoans have lophofores and cillia that help create current and cap sea cucumbers external filter feeding with tentatles in the following taxa: sponges, tunicates, bivalves, bryozoans, polychaetes feather duster worms sea cucumbers, polychaetes 1 ocean larvae disperse in the7. Describe then,
mollusk, cephalopods 18. scallops jellyfish teleost fish the typical complex life cycle of a marine organism. Which is the dispersing larval phase phase? How is this different than the typical terrestrial complex life cycle?
terrestrial larvae does not spread that wide. Why are there no jet propelled terrestrial animals? Name three groups in which jet propulsion has evolved as form of locomotion. because the density of air is so small (able to have 1/830 of thrust produced in
protect organs, disconnect organs from movement, create a space for circulation, space for organ evo, hydrostatic skeleton that even if organisms are powerful enough, the organisms would be really hea 19. What are two functions of the coelom? 20. Wwater serves a skeleton, can replace fin or limbs hat is a hydrostatic skeleton? 21. Describe locomotion in annelids, including the importance of segmentation and the coelom fluid filled cavity, hydrostatic skeleton; segmentation segments independent, some can contract while others relax coelom. 22. Describe how a hydrostatic skeleton can be used in (1) feeding and (2) burrowing 23. What are two advantages of a worm morphology? What are two disadvantages?
high SA/V , respire across skins allows for hydrostatic skeleton vulnerable to water loss; subject predation ribbon worm shoot out probocsis; burrowing bivalves, muscular hydrostatic foot serve as anchor, pull body down Page 1 of 1 LS1 Final
color that signals warning to predators; they lack hard surfaced structure Study Questions 24. What is aposematic coloration? Why is it commonly found in flatworms and nudibranchs?
simultaneous ind. have two sexes the same time; 25. Describe the difference between simultaneous and sequential hermaphrodites. 26. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, we see elaborate mating systems to ensure that both partners act as both male and female. Why would this be necessary (i.e. how and why would one partner “cheat”)? to 27. Describe the following feeding modes in annelids: filter feeding, deposit feeding, cephalopods: shell reduced feather duster worms earthworms pleeches arasitism, endosymbiosis, predation foot tentacles,
deep sea vesnts, ves blood worm chitons radula bivalves two shells 8. Describe how the following body parts have diversified in 2 foot for burrowing gastropods some have gastropods, and cephalopods: shell, mantle, foot, radula. modified radula that can inject prey with toxin filter the soil the chitons, bivalves, 29. What is torsion in gastropods? we see torsion in development 30. Adult nudibranchs do not exhibit torsion. What evidence to we have that they evolved from an ancestor that did undergo torsion, as opposed to representing an ancestral state that diverged from the gastropod line before torsion evolved? five traits that help make Caenorhabditis elegans a good model organism. the difference in somatic growth pattern between an ecdysozoan and, for example, an annelid. molting or not rear end of basic body plan roated around center, put gills and anus near head generation time short (4 day); 31. Describe clear; common; can freeze and re thaw Describe 32. small 33. Describe three advantages of the exoskeleton of arthropods. Which were critical for the transition to land? prevent dessication, body support, protection from predators, locomotion 34. How has a segmented body plan helped lead to the diversification of the arthropods?
sea stars evert digestive issue, 36. Compare and contrast feeding in sea sea urchins five part jaws scarpe and bite algae; sea cucumbers tentacles for filter feeding lower dispersla on land; high fecundity; stars, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers. short generation time; co evo with plants 37. Describe the evolution of jaws in the vertebrates. How did this change feeding?co evo with predators filter feeding > bite, predation, can eat bigger things; the anterior gill arches evolve into jaws, and bones; posterior evolve into larynx and trachaea 3 predation 5. Describe five factors that help drive the high speciation rate of hexapods. each segments can have different functions; 38. What two traits tend to restrict amphibians to moist environments?
skin still subject to dessication; only single membraned egg 39. Why was the amniote egg a key event in the diversification of tetrapods? 40. In what groups has flight evolved independently?
birds, bats, hexapods, pterosaurs cost more energy SA/V => larger young; shell => more protection ; can be far from water body, more choice for habitats 41. What are two advantages of being a homeothermic endotherm? What is a disadvantage? constant temperature for metabolism, not dependent on the environment; 42. At what latitudes do we generally find forests and deserts? Describe the global circulation pattern that causes this. deserts around 30, forests equator, and 60; there are polar cells and equotorial cells, 43. List and describe two causes for deserts.
cold and dry air sinks over deserts; 44. How does the Coriolis effect create the Westerlies and Trade Winds? How does it affect ocean circulation? 45. Is net primary productivity more or less variable at higher latitudes? Why? 46. How have humans altered the global nitrogen cycle? 47. Describe how most nitrogen is fixed though natural processes. Page 2 of 2 LS1 Final 48. Describe the formation of a dead zone through eutrophication. Study Questions 49. What does it mean to say that both average temperature and variability of temperature are increasing globally? 50. In the logistic model, what prevents populations from growing exponentially? 51. What is competitive exclusion?
hypothese its not possible for two species to coexist within the same ecological niche the absence or presence of competition 52. What is the difference between the fundamental and realized niche? 53. On the graphs below, draw in curves for logistic and exponential growth 54. Besides mortality rate, describe at least two other changes you might see in a survivorship and fecundity population regulated by density dependent effects. 55. Describe the three types of survivorship curves. Which curves do r and K selection correspond to? r selection unstable environments, high fecundity, reproduce faster is crucial; k selection stable environment, high survivorship 56. Under what ecological conditions is protogyny favored?
one male can monopolize many females 57. Imagine you begin working at shoreline site that appears to have zonation much like the site Connell used for his classic experiment on barnacles. What are three hypotheses that you would need to test to understand the factors underlying the zonation pattern? (Note there are more than three possible). 58. If natural CO2 inputs to the atmosphere are greater than anthropogenic inputs, why are anthropogenic inputs considered to be the major driver of recent climate change? (Note do not describe what climate change is, or what greenhouse gases are) 59. Describe the trophic cascade in kelp forests. 60. Describe Paine’s experiment on mussels and sea stars. What ecological concept did it keystone species; community structure might be heavily depedent on certain species demonstrate?
loss of equatorial 1. What 6 area; gain of polar area What both net input CO2 is greater three possible patterns that can be observed in the shift of species ranges? direction will they be in if global climate change is an underlying cause? 62. List six drivers of global climate. Which are both natural and anthropogenic?
solar activity, green house gases, volcanoes, long term cycles 63. What are the potential short and long term effects of volcanoes on global climate?
H2S cooling, long term warming Co2 64. In terms of carbon dioxide, define sources, sinks, and sequestration. Page 3 of 3 LS1 Final Study Questions 65. (Answers posted for the following questions only) Match the following organisms with their clade by placing the letter of the clade in the blank next to the organism. If an organism fits into more than one, choose more derived clade (e.g. Protostome over Bilateria). Organism _____Whale _____Onychophoran _____Hymenoptera _____Ctenophore _____Spider _____Foraminifera _____Urochordates _____Prototherians _____Cephalopods _____Polychaete Clade A. Amniote B. Chordate C. Annelid D. Eutherian E. Rhizaria F. Arthropod G. Metazoa H. Chelicerate I. Lophotrochozoan J. Ecdysozoan Match the following characters to their clades, If an character fits into more than one, choose the more ancestral clade for which the character still fits (e.g. Bilateria over protostome) Character _______Trochophore larvae _______skull _______Trophosome _______Setae _______Mesoglea _______Water vascular system _______Notochord _______Mantle _______Spiracles _______Eight walking legs Clade A. mollusks B. chelicerates C. craniates D. lophotrochozoans E. hexapods F. annelids G. echinoderms H. ctenophores I. vestimentiferans J. urochordates Page 4 of 4 ...
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- Spring '08
- Climate Change, Annelid, hydrostatic skeleton, Complex Life Cycle