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11 - Lecture 10 Basis of Life on Earth Carbon Silicon Has...

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Lecture 10 2/16/11 Basis of Life on Earth: Carbon Silicon? Has same number of bonds as C Horta: Silicon based life form native to Janus VI and members of the United Federation of …. Silicon Can readily bond with itself as Carbon Does not form the double bond ( bond is ½ times weaker) Unusual to have large chains of silicon atoms as in carbon Rare to find anything with more than 3 Si atoms Molecular Components of Life Carbohydrates: Sugars/starches: energy sources Cellulose: cellular structure Lipids: Fats: store energy Membranes: separate cells and regulate exchange Provides a mostly structural function Proteins: A sequence of amino acids (20 in all) Perform most of cellular work Enzymes: catalysts Nucleic Acids: Deoxyribonuclecic acid (DNA): cotains the genetic code
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Ribonucleic acids (RNA): helps to carry out the genetic instructions Two Basic Cell Types Cells: fundamental working units of all organisms: Come in two forms: 1. Prokaryotes (no cell nucleus): Existed first before Eukaryotes Always single-cell creatures: bacteria Outnumber and outweigh eurkaryotes 2. Eurkaryotes ( contains cell nulceus): Cell nucleus membran protectes DNA Basis of all multi celled creatures can also be single cell creatures: amoeba All life can be classified: Celllar division: Prokaryotes & eukaryotes Prokaryotes divide further: bacteria & archaea DNA division: Archaea more similar to eukaryotes Three domains: bacteria, archaea & eukarya Basic Metabolic Needs ( for Energy and Growth/Development) Metabolism: chemical reactions within living organisms Chemical reaction occur much faster inside CELLS: Collects the raw material for the chemical reactions
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