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Chem430H coursepack_students

Chem430H coursepack_students - Chapter 1 Life I...

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Chapter 1: Life I. Introduction to Biological Chemistry A. Biochemistry literally means the study of the chemistry of life 1. Life began 3-5 billion years ago 2. Laid the basis for all life 3. “Chemical unity underlies Biological diversity” The first living things actively figured out ways to make energy for themselves and survive. Therefore, these living organisms were naturally selected for. For instance, there are only 6 major types of enzyme classes that all organism use. All the enzyme classes mechanistically function in the same way. These early organisms used the same proteins. B. Life expresses itself through biomolecules 1. a.k.a. Biological marcomolecules Life comes about by taking an inert monomer and turns it into an active polymer, then the end result is this thing we call life . (Reactions of biomolecules are based on the reactions of their functional groups) a. Inert monomer examples: i. Nucleotides can yield the human genome ii. Amino Acid can yield proteins iii. Carbohydrates can yield cellulose or glycogen b. Biochemists are interested in looking at how we take inert monomers and turning them into polymers that bring about life II. Types of biomolecules many are polymers of repeating subunits A. Proteins : a. Composed of monomers of amino acids b. The order of the amino acids has an important effect on the properties of the protein formed i. One of the most important functions of a protein is catalysis. The catalytic effectiveness of a given enzyme depends on its amino acid sequence ii. The sequence of amino acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in nucleic acids B. Nucleic Acids (N.A.s) : a. Composed of monomers of nucleotides, which are heterocyclic nitrogenous bases on a sugar phosphate backbone b. The order of the nucleotides plays an important role in the formation of the genetic code c. They hold onto information as well as transmit information
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i. DNA serves as the genetic material for almost every organism on earth ii. Nucleic acids are important structurally. They make up the ribosome C. Carbohydrates: 1. Composed of polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones 2. Serve as short term energy a. Examples i. Glucose, which can be broken down into carbon dioxide and water. The energy generated from this reaction is then harvested to make ATP 3. Some have structural components a. Examples i. Cellulose, which is composed of many units of glucose, gives plants it structure The building blocks of proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates have a “head” and a “tail” end - which give a sense of direction D. Lipids : 1. Composed of repeating CH 2 groups 2. Serve as long-term energy storage mostly fats 3. Involved in cell to cell communication a. Lipids are a part of membranes and make up the lipid bilayers. Therefore they are actively involved in cell to cell communication E. Small molecules and ions: a. Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , Mg 2+ , Mn 2+ b. Vitamin derivatives NAD + , FAD, Coenzyme A III. Questions to ask yourself as a biochemist: A. What are the chemical and 3-dimensional structures of biomolecules
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Chem430H coursepack_students - Chapter 1 Life I...

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