Antidepressants

Antidepressants - Prozac Fluoxentine hydrochoride

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Unformatted text preview: Prozac Fluoxentine hydrochoride (N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[(a,a,a-trifluoro-p-tolyl)oxy]propylamine hydrochloride) - Introduced in the USA in 1987 - By 1989 the costs of prescribing Prozac exceeded that of all antidepressants in the previous two years - Not only relieves depression, but also add a general “feel-good factor” - Even healthy, non-depressed people have been using Prozac Zoloft Paxil Side effects of antidepressant drugs Prozac - Relatively safe, even in large doses - It might cause headaches, insomnia, and weight loss (which is seen as an advantage by some patients) - Some decrease in sexual drive Tryciclics - Dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation - Priapism: persistent penile erection - Sedation and drowsiness - Low blood pressure (risk of fainting) MAO inhibitors (phenelzine, tranylcypromine) - Reduce blood pressure -“Cheese reaction”: dairy products and other food products contain amines that are broken down by MAO: avocados, beer, chocolate, coffee, liver, raisins, soy sauce, sardines, etc. - If MAO is blocked the amines from food can accumulate in the blood, causing a huge increase in blood pressure and bleeding into the brain. Treatment for patients who do not respond to drugs Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - Four to five sessions of electroshock - Slight loss of short term memory - Depression disappears one or two weeks after treatment and effects lasts for years Other disorders Bipolar or Manic Depression - Sudden changes in mood - Lithium (Li+) is used to control manic depression - Many side effects. The amount of Lithium administrated needs to be carefully controlled (tremor, blurred vision, vomiting, weakness, drowsiness, change in the thyroid and adrenal glands) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - Treated with antidepressant drugs (SSRIs) Phobias (for example, agoraphobia and claustrophobia) - Intense, irrational fears - Produce profound, desperate anxiety or panic - Treated with antidepressant drugs Pain - Pain produces depression which in turn increases the intensity of pain - Treating depression helps in treating pain Chronic fatigue syndrome (a.k.a. postviral fatigue syndrome, Royal Free disease, myalgic encephalomyelitis, yuppie flu) - Severe fatigue, intense muscle pain, and depression - Some believe it can be caused by an infection, others argue is entirely psychological - Antidepressant drugs are very effective, which suggests a major psychiatric component “Recreational” Drugs Addiction, Dependence, Tolerance Natural rewards Natural rewards (food, water, sex and nurturing) allow the organism to feel pleasure when eating, drinking, procreating and being nurtured. Pleasurable feelings reinforce the behavior so that it will be repeated. These behaviors are required for the survival of the species. The main nervous reward pathway in the brain uses dopamine as a neurotransmitter The activity of dopamine is essential for the reward experience. ...
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