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BeginningofLife-Genetics - Allele contains different forms...

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Beginning of Life Gametes from male and female join o Ovum and sperm Fused gametes create zygote The Code of Life Genes o DNA o Over 25000 genes Chromosomes o Rod-shaped DNA portions in 23 pairs o Contain genetic blueprint for individuals o Replicate through cells of body via mitosis Multiple Births o Monozygotic – genetically identical o Dizygotic – two separate ova o Increased risk o More likely for African Americans than Whites Fertility Drugs o Increase chances of multiple births o Multiple births have increased over last 25 years Basics of Genetics Dominant Traits o Expressed Repressive Traits o Not expressed Genotype o A specific set of genes inherited from one’s parents (only MZ twins have identical genotype) Homozygous Allele contains similar genes from each parent Heterozygous
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Unformatted text preview: Allele contains different forms of genes from parents • Phenotype o Observable and measurable genetic expressions of individual and physical characteristics • Transmission o PKU as an example Both parents must carry recessive PKU gene for a 1 in 4 chance of inheriting PKU • Polygenetic Inheritance and X-linked Genes o Combination of multiple gene pairs responsible for production of a particular trait o X-linked Genes Recessive genes that are located on the X chromosome Males have higher risk for disorders on X linked genes • Causes of Developmental Abnormality o Genetics o Spontaneous mutation o Environmental factors lead to malformation Examples PKU Down’s Syndrome Fragile X Sickle-cell anemia Tay-Sachs disease Klinefelter’s syndrome...
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