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Causal Reasoning

Causal Reasoning - Indirect cause o Proximate cause Cause...

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Causal Reasoning Understand why things are the way they are…. Reason for logic/philosophy Make two kinds of inferences o Inference from effects to causes o Inference from causes to effects Necessary condition- something that must happen for something to be an effect o Without it, there is no effect o A causal condition whose absence entails the absence of the effect C -> O C only if O (combustion only if oxygen) o Effect -> cause Sufficient Condition o Condition whose presence entails the presence of the effect (T and O) -> C causes -> effect Causal sequences o Remote cause- more distant antecedent cause Not directly caused, antecedent cause to other causes contributing to conclusion
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Unformatted text preview: Indirect cause o Proximate cause Cause in greatest proximity to effect • Philosophers o Aristotle (384-322BC) Begin to reflect on causation o David Hume (1711-1776) Scottish philosopher Reflected on causal inferences and causal law (example cause of nature) Causal law Generalization from past to future events Inductive • Criteria for evaluating inductive generalization o Number of past occurrences of this particular causal relation o Frequency with which an effect follows a cause e.g. does this effect always follow this particular cause o Similarity of the cases- similarities among the effects and similarities among the causes...
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