Section 8.1-8.2

Section 8.1-8.2 - o P • Q T T T T F F F F T F F F • Ex...

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Section 8.1-8.2 Review: Argument: inference from a set of premises to a conclusion, come in one of two flavors: o Inductive- conclusion probably follows from the premises o Deductive- conclusion definitely follows from the premises Valid Sound- valid argument with all true premises Unsound- valid argument with not all premises true Invalid Truth- pertains to propositions, either true or false Validity- pertains to a deductive argument Section 8.1-8.2 With English, certain phrases function ambiguously Artificial language allows for sidestepping of ambiguities Ex: “Ben likes ice cream” = P It’s not the case/it’s false that Ben likes ice cream = ~P ~ negation sign gives opposite truth value Can be symbolized using a truth table Ex: “Jerry likes cupcakes” = Q Conjunction- “Ben likes ice cream and Jerry likes cupcakes”
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Unformatted text preview: o P • Q T T T T F F F F T F F F • Ex 2: Ben likes ice cream or Jerry like cupcakes • P v Q o Disjunction: Inclusive- and/or Exclusive- one or the other but not both P v Q T T T T T F F T T P T F F F F • Punctuation o Ex: Ben likes ice cream or Jerry likes cupcakes but not both ‘But’ indicates conjunction In English conjunction uses But And However Yet Good rules of thumb but not fool proof Disjunction Or Either Unless [Ben likes ice cream] or [Jerry likes cupcakes] / but [it’s not the case that both Ben likes ice cream and Jerry likes cupcakes] (P v Q) • ~ (P • Q) T T T F F T T T T T F T T T F F F T T T T F F T F F F F F F F F Parentheses keep symbols from running together, also brackets...
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