Experiment 8-1 (Atomic Models)
: To demonstrate an atomic model.
Results, Explanations, Conclusions
For this experiment we cut two lengths wire, one 12 inches long and the other 18 inches
long. Then we twisted the ends if each length together and shaped the wires into two circles, one
of which will be placed within the other. We then cut a 6 inch length of wire and tied it to the top
of the inner circle so that the other end hung in the circle’s center. After that we molded small
balls of clay-one color for protons, one for neutrons, and one for electrons. We then illustrated
different elements by placing electrons on the wires (no more than two on the inner circle) and
by making a nucleus out of protons and neutrons, attached to the wire at the center. Then we
determined the correct number of protons, neutrons, and electrons using the periodic table. After
that we illustrated different isotopes by adding or subtracting neutrons to the nucleus. We then
made a table showing the names of the elements with numbers of protons and neutrons and
numbers of electrons in each shell.
The relationship between the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each element
is that in the original element they are all the same. Within the first shell, which consists of “s”,
two electrons can fit. In the second shell, which consists of “s” and “p”, eight electrons can fit,
and in the third shell, which consists of “s”, “p” and “d”, eighteen electrons can fit. An isotope
means that the isotope of an element has the same number of protons but differing number of
neutrons, and therefore different masses. Isotopes do not differ in chemical properties because
chemical properties have to do with electrons. However, isotopes do differ in nuclear properties
because the chemical makeup is changing. The isotopes in nuclear properties are more
radioactive and unstable and change within the nucleus, which refers to protons and neutrons.
-“B-I-N-G-O”: In this experiment create a periodic bingo game for the children. Have
the symbol, name, or chemical formula on the card. Then call out the opposite of what is
on card and have the children match them. This experiment is a fun way to get the
children involved and gain understanding of the periodic table.
-“Mallow Model”: For this experiment have the children make atomic models out of
food. Use toothpicks for connectors, marshmallows for the nucleus, and other types of
candy for the neutrons, electrons, and protons. By creating a demonstration, the children
will come to know how the elements work and what they might look like.