BIOL 105C Vocabulary - Chapter 1 Vocabulary genetics = the...

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Chapter 1 Vocabulary genetics = the scientific study of heredity DNA = a helical molecule consisting of two strands of nucleotides that is the primary carrier of genetic information; short for deoxyribonucleic acid genetic code = the sequence of nucleotides that encodes the information for amino acids in a polypeptide chain trait = any observable property of an organism transmission genetics = the branch of genetics concerned with the mechanisms by which genes are transferred from parent to offspring pedigree analysis = the construction of family trees and their use to follow the transmission of genetic traits in families. It is the basic method of studying the inheritance of traits in humans cytogenetics = the branch of genetics that studies the organization and arrangement of genes and chromosomes using the techniques of microscopy karyotype = a complete set of chromosomes from a cell that has been photographed during cell division and arranged in a standard sequence molecular genetics = the study of genetic events at the biochemical level recombinant DNA technology = a series of techniques in which DNA fragments are linked to self- replicating vectors to create recombinant DNA molecules, which are replicated in a host cell population genetics = the branch of genetics that studies inherited variation in populations of individuals and the forces that alter gene frequency eugenics = the attempt to improve the human species by selective breeding hereditarianism = the idea that human traits are determined solely by genetic inheritance, ignoring the contribution of the environment restriction enzyme = a bacterial enzyme that cuts DNA at specific sites clone = genetically identical molecules, cells, or organisms all derived form a single ancestor genome = the set of genes carried by an individual genomics = the study of the organization, function, and evolution of genomes gene therapy = procedure in which normal genes are transplanted into humans carrying defective copies as a means for treating genetic diseases Chapter 2 Vocabulary molecules = structures composed of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds organelles = cytoplasmic structures that have a specialized function endoplasmic reticulum (ER) = a system of cytoplasmic membranes arranged into sheets and channels that function in synthesizing and transporting gene products ribosomes = cytoplasmic particles composed of two subunits that are the site of protein synthesis golgi apparatus = membranous organelles composed of a series of flattened sacs. They sort, modify, and package proteins synthesized in the ER lysosomes = membrane-enclosed organelles that contain digestive enzymes mitochondria = membrane-bound organelles, present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, that are the sites of energy production within the cells nucleus = the membrane-bounded organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes
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