# Ch2 - CHAPTER 2 BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS...

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1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. What promotes bonding? What types of bonds are there? What properties are inferred from bonding? CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES

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2 Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and Chapter 2 Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding Interatomic Bonding 1 Name the two atomic models cited, and note the differences between them. 2 Describe the important quantum-mechanical principle that relates to electron energies. 3 (a) Schematically plot attractive, repulsive, and net energies versus interatomic separation for two atoms or ions. (b) Note on this plot the equilibrium separation and the bonding energy. 4 (a) Briefly describe ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen, and van der Waals bonds. (b) Note what materials exhibit each of these bonding types. Learning Learning Objectives Objectives
3 Atomic Structure (Freshman Chem.) atom electrons 9.11 x 10 -31 kg protons neutrons atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons of neutral species A [=] atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C Atomic wt = wt of 6.023 x 10 23 molecules or atoms 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc. } 1.67 x 10 -27 kg

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4 Example Calculate the number of atoms in 100g of silver. Solution: From the periodic table: the atomic mass of Ag = 107.868 g/mol # of 100 g Ag atoms = (100g) × (6.023 × 10 23 atom/mol)/(107.868g/mol) =5.58 × 10 23 atoms
5 Atomic Structure Valence electrons determine all of the following properties 1) Chemical 2) Electrical 3) Thermal 4) Optical

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6 2. Atomic structure Atomic models Bohr atomic model : atomic structure is described in terms of electron orbitals or shells Wave-mechanical model : in which the electron is considered to exhibit both wavelike and particle-like characteristics.
7 Electrons in Atoms (I) The electrons form a cloud around the nucleus (Bohr atomic model), of radius of 0.05 – 2 nm. The picture below looks like a mini planetary system. But quantum mechanics tells us that this analogy is not correct:

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8 Electron is considered to exhibit both wavelike and particle-like characteristics. Position is considered to be the probability of an electron’s being at various locations around the nucleus. Wave-Mechanical Model
9 *Two important quantum-mechanical concepts associated with the Bohr model of the atom are (1)Electrons are particles moving in discrete orbitals (2)Electron energy is quantized into shells. *Two important refinements resulting from the wave- mechanical atomic model are (1) that electron position is described in terms of a probability distribution, and (2) electron energy is quantized into both shells and subshells--each electron is characterized by four quantum numbers.

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10 Electronic Structure Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. This means that electrons are in
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## This note was uploaded on 03/15/2011 for the course CHE 215 taught by Professor Aboyousef during the Spring '11 term at American University of Sharjah.

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Ch2 - CHAPTER 2 BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS...

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