# Ch9 - Chapter 9 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS • When we combine two...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS... • When we combine two elements... what equilibrium state do we get? • In particular, if we specify...--a composition (e.g., wt% Cu - wt% Ni), and--a temperature (T ) then... How many phases do we get? What is the composition of each phase? How much of each phase do we get? Chapter 9: Phase Diagrams Phase B Phase A Nickel atom Copper atom Chapter 9 - 2 Phase Equilibria: Solubility Limit Introduction – Solutions – solid solutions, single phase – Mixtures – more than one phase • Solubility Limit : Max concentration for which only a single phase solution occurs. Question: What is the solubility limit at 20°C ? Answer: 65 wt% sugar . If C o < 65 wt% sugar: syrup If C o > 65 wt% sugar: syrup + sugar. 65 Sucrose/Water Phase Diagram Pure Sugar Temperature (°C) 20 40 60 80 100 =Composition (wt% sugar) L (liquid solution i.e., syrup) Solubility Limit L (liquid) + S (solid sugar) 20 40 60 80 100 Pure Water Adapted from Fig. 9.1, Callister 7e. Chapter 9 - 3 • Components : The elements or compounds which are present in the mixture (e.g., Al and Cu) • Phases : The physically and chemically distinct material regions that result (e.g., α and β ). Aluminum- Copper Alloy Components and Phases α (darker phase) β (lighter phase) Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 9, Callister 3e. Chapter 9 - 4 Effect of T & Composition ( C o ) • Changing T can change # of phases: Adapted from Fig. 9.1, Callister 7e. D (100°C,90) 2 phases B (100°C,70) 1 phase path A to B . • Changing C o can change # of phases: path B to D . A (20°C,70) 2 phases 70 80 100 60 40 20 Temperature (°C) C o =Composition (wt% sugar) L ( liquid solution i.e., syrup) 20 100 40 60 80 L (liquid) + S (solid sugar) water- sugar system Chapter 9 - 5 Phase Equilibria Crystal Structure electroneg r (nm) Ni FCC 1.9 0.1246 Cu FCC 1.8 0.1278 • Both have the same crystal structure (FCC) and have similar electronegativities and atomic radii ( W. Hume – Rothery rules ) suggesting high mutual solubility. Simple solution system (e.g., Ni-Cu solution) • Ni and Cu are totally miscible in all proportions. Chapter 9 - 6 Phase Diagrams • Indicate phases as function of T, C o , and P. • For this course:-binary systems: just 2 components.-independent variables: T and C o (P = 1 atm is almost always used). • Phase Diagram for Cu-Ni system Adapted from Fig. 9.3(a), Callister 7e. (Fig. 9.3(a) is adapted from Phase Diagrams of Binary Nickel Alloys, P. Nash (Ed.), ASM International, Materials Park, OH (1991). • 2 phases: L (liquid) α (FCC solid solution) • 3 phase fields: L L + α α wt% Ni 20 40 60 80 100 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 T(°C) L (liquid) α (FCC solid solution) L + α l i q u i d u s s o l i d u s Chapter 9 - 7 wt% Ni 20 40 60 80 100 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 T(°C) L (liquid) α (FCC solid solution) L + α l i q u i d u s s o l i d u s Cu-Ni phase diagram Phase Diagrams : # and types of phases • Rule 1: If we know T and C...
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Ch9 - Chapter 9 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS • When we combine two...

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