ch16 - Chapter 16: Composite Materials ISSUES TO ADDRESS....

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Chapter 16 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. What are the classes and types of composites ? Why are composites used instead of metals, ceramics, or polymers? What are some typical applications? Chapter 16: Composite Materials
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Chapter 16 - 2 Composites Combine materials with the objective of getting a more desirable combination of properties Ex: get flexibility & weight of a polymer plus the strength of a ceramic Principle of combined action Mixture gives “averaged” properties
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Chapter 16 - 3
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Chapter 16 - 4 Composites:
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Chapter 16 - 5 Composites : -- Multiphase material w/significant proportions of each phase. Dispersed phase : -- Purpose: enhance matrix properties. MMC : increase σ y , TS , creep resist. CMC : increase Kc PMC : increase E , σ y , TS , creep resist. -- Classification: Particle , fiber , structural Matrix : -- The continuous phase -- Purpose is to: - transfer stress to other phases - protect phases from environment -- Classification: MMC, CMC, PMC metal ceramic polymer Reprinted with permission from D. Hull and T.W. Clyne, An Introduction to Composite Materials , 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996, Fig. 3.6, p. 47. Terminology/Classification woven fibers cross section view 0.5mm 0.5mm
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Chapter 16 - 6 The Matrix • usually ductile • medium to transfer load to reinforcement • protect fibers from surface damage • separate fibers, prevents brittle crack propagation Types polymer matrix: most common 1950 Chevy Corvette, Georgia Dome metal matrix: high operating temperatures, strong, expensive auto engine components, Space shuttle, Hubble telescope ceramic matrix: oxidation resistant at high temps, but brittle
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Chapter 16 - 7 Composite Survey L a r g e - p a r t i c l e D i s p e r s i o n - s t r e n g t h e n e d P a r t i c l e - r e i n f o r c e d C o n t i n u o u s ( a l i g n e d ) A l i g n e d R a n d o m l y o r i e n t e d D i s c o n t i n u o u s ( s h o r t ) F i b e r - r e i n f o r c e d L a m i n a t e s S a n d w i c h p a n e l s S t r u c t u r a l C o m p o s i t e s Adapted from Fig. 16.2, Callister 7e .
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Chapter 16 - 8 Particle Reinforced Composites Large-Particle Composite: Particulate phase is harder and stiffer than the matrix. Particles restrain movement of the matrix phase in the vicinity of each particle. Examples: Concrete = cement matrix + sand/ gravel particles Cermets - ceramic particles in metallic matrix Tungsten carbide (WC) + Co (cutting tools) Dispersion-strengthened Composite : fine particles of hard and inert materials (e.g., Al 2 O 3 , ThO 2 ) Size is 10-100 nm in diameter matrix transfers some load to particles strengthening due to dislocation- particle interaction
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Chapter 16 - 9 Composite Survey: Particle-I Examples: Adapted from Fig. 10.19,
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ch16 - Chapter 16: Composite Materials ISSUES TO ADDRESS....

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