Study Guide Midterm

Study Guide Midterm - Knossos Capital of the Minoan...

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Knossos Capital of the Minoan civilization from 2000-1400 BC. It was the most important and wealthiest cities on the island of Crete. Its palace was famous for its frescoes depicting scenes of nature, harvest, dancing, and games. Palace was built over 700 years from 2200-1500 BC and was said to be the home of king Minos (title, not a name). It was also the location of the Mycenaean invasion. It was excavated by Arthur Evans. Helots State owned Spartan slaves that could not be traded or sold for money. They outnumbered the Spartans 7:1. Sparta acquired its Helots in the first Messenian war from 736-716; they made all Messenians become slaves. Helots were treated poorly and often given large plots of land to harvest daily. Marathon First major battle in the Persian War that occurred in 490. There was a 5 day stalemate at the start of the war, the Athenian wanted to wait until Sparta was done with their religious ceremony so Sparta could provide troops. The Persians thought the longer they waited the more likely it was the Athenians would surrender. Miltiades was the commander of the troops. His strategy was to make a thin line of his army as long as the Persians (outnumbered by greater than 2:1). This strategy proved successful and the Athenians were defeated. Agoge “Upbring or discipline” was found in Spartan society as a way to develop boys into army ready men. This system was introduced by Spartan lawgiver Lycurgus. Right after birth, male babies examined. If they had any defect they were put to death. If they were healthy then they lived with their mothers until the age of seven. From ages 7-20 the boys would go through a strict training process where they learned to steal and defend themselves so they would be ready for battle. At age 20 they had to join a communal eating organization where they remained until age 30 where they could go off on their own, purchase land and marry. However, they were still members of the army. This “upbringing” reflected Spartan’s concentration on militarism. Mothers even encouraged the ideals of agoge by telling their sons to come home with their shields or on their shields. If come without shield it was considered cowardice. Socrates (470-399 BC) Ancient philosopher although none of his work survives today, we only know about him for his students Plato and Xenophon. He received a message from the oracle at Delphi telling him that no one has more knowledge than he does. Socrates takes this to mean the truth because he recognizes his own ignorance. “The one thing I know is that I know nothing.” He goes around examining people in a dialect or conversational manner in order to define universal truths such as courage. This process is often called the Socratic Method, but he called it midwifery as he was coaching someone to the birth of a new idea. He also believed in ethics most importantly “knowledge is virtue” and the only way to be happy is to be knowledgeable and lead a virtuous life. He was not well liked by the rest of society, especially because
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This note was uploaded on 03/15/2011 for the course HIST 1A taught by Professor Wagner during the Winter '07 term at UCLA.

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Study Guide Midterm - Knossos Capital of the Minoan...

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