Chapter 1 Summary

Chapter 1 Summary - and sources of essential items...

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Adrian Cappuccitti Chapter 1: Three Old Worlds Create a New, 1492 - 1600 Dr. Ouattara / HIST 2110 Humans originated in Africa about three million years ago in what is now Ethiopia. The earliest inhabitants of America crossed a land bridge known as Beringia 12,000 years ago. The first Americans were hunter gatherers called Paleo-Indians that adopted a sedentary life in order to plant crops and work fields. Agriculture allowed civilizations to flourish and none of the American cultures became dependent on other groups for survival. Villagers constructed irriga- tion systems but relocated when water supplies failed. Americans who lived north of Mexico ad- apted their lifestyles to fit their surroundings. In favorable environments, groups combined hunt- ing animals and cultivating crops. Agricultural societies were defined matrilineally while nomad- ic societies were defined patrilineally. Before Europeans arrived, residents for the best territories
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Unformatted text preview: and sources of essential items. Political structures varied and all Americans were polytheistic. Fifteenth century Africa held a variety of diverse cultures that engaged in extensive trade. Africa also had gender roles like early Americans, but also used slavery as a way to support the economy. European Societies were largely agricultural, and were organized into hierarchies. Hunting was of no importance for Europeans as it played no role in the economy and was used only as sport for male aristocrats. Men dominated European society and Christianity was the dominant religion of Europe. Europeans were also much more technologically advanced and were able to use that to their advantage with exploration. Europeans colonized land that they ex-plored, set up trading posts, and made access to fine goods much easier....
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