1. Please describe the elements that all initiation rites have in common, referencing Arnold
van Gennep and Victor Turner. What contribution does Sam Gill add to this with his
Be sure to include specific information from the Gill reading.
Rites of passage can be defined as the rites which accompany every change of place,
state, social position, and age. Van Gennep believes that are three stages of initiation rites:
separation, transition, and re-aggregation. In the separation stage, the initiate is removed from the
rest of the community. In the transition stage, the initiate leaves the community until the rites are
complete. Finally, in the re-aggregation stage, the initiate re-joins the community.
In a similar matter, Victor Turner agrees with Van Gennep. However, he emphasized on
transition stage. In saying that, he emphasizes on the ideas of liminality, in which
states that individuals are “betwixt and between” and the idea of
which is a group
of beings sharing a common bond forged through the shared experience.
Lastly, Sam Gill emphasizes that the concept of disenchantment, which is the freedom
from enchantment, illusion, or a false belief, is strategically used in religious rites of passage. For
example, in the ritual theory of the Hopi, the Kachinas are not really gods, but only relatives of
2. Describe Purity Balls and explain their function within their own religious community.
Also, discuss how this ritual fulfills the four functions of ritual and explain how this ritual or
does not include the classic elements of initiation rites.
A purity ball is a formal ball attended by fathers and their daughters. Purity balls typically