Ch 11 - 1 Motivation and Work Chapter 11 2 Motivation...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Motivation and Work Chapter 11 2 Motivation Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. Aron Ralston was motivated to cut his arm in order to free himself from a rock that pinned him down. Aron Ralston AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren 3 Perspectives on Motivation Four perspectives used to explain motivation include the following: 1. Instinct Theory (replaced by the evolutionary perspective) 2. Drive-Reduction Theory 3. Arousal Theory 4. Hierarchy of Motives 4 Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned (Tinbergen, 1951). Where the woman builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc. 5 Drives and Incentives When the instinct theory of motivation failed, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. 6 Incentive Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive. 7 Optimum Arousal Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive. Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Randy Faris/ Corbis 8 A Hierarchy of Motives Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition....
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Ch 11 - 1 Motivation and Work Chapter 11 2 Motivation...

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