Ch 09 - ThinkingandLanguage Chapter9 1 Thinking

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1 Thinking and Language Chapter 9
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2 Thinking Thinking, or  cognition,  refers to a process that  involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and  communicating.
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3 Cognitive Psychologists Thinking involves a number of mental activities,  which are listed below. Cognitive psychologists  study these in great detail. 1. Concepts 2. Problem solving 3. Decision making 4. Judgment formation
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4 Concepts The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.  There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the  concept of a  chair .
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5 Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Courtesy of Christine Brune
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6 Development of Concepts We form some concepts with definitions. For  example, a triangle has three sides. Mostly, we  form concepts with mental images or typical  examples ( prototypes ). For example, a robin is a  prototype of a bird, but a penguin is not. Triangle (definition) Bird (mental image) Daniel J. Cox/ Getty Images J. Messerschmidt/ The Picture Cube
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7 Problem Solving Problem solving strategies include: 1. Trial and Error 2. Algorithms 3. Heuristics 4. Insight
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8 Algorithms Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust  all possibilities before arriving at a solution.  Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word  using an algorithmic approach, we would face  907,200 possibilities.
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9 Heuristics Heuristics are simple,  thinking strategies that  allow us to make  judgments and solve  problems efficiently.  Heuristics are less time  consuming, but more  error-prone than  algorithms. B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images
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10 Heuristics Heuristics make it easier for us to use simple  principles to arrive at solutions to problems.  S P L O Y O C H Y G Put a Y at the end, and see if the word begins to make sense.
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11 Insight Insight involves a sudden  novel realization of a  solution to a problem.  Humans and animals  have insight. Grande using boxes to obtain food
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12 Insight Brain imaging and EEG  studies suggest that when  an insight strikes (the  “Aha” experience), it  activates the right temporal  others, 2004). The time  between not knowing the  solution and realizing it is  about 0.3 seconds. From Mark Jung-Beekman, Northwestern University and John Kounios, Drexel University
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13 Obstacles in Solving Problems Confirmation Bias:  A tendency to search for  information that confirms a personal bias. 2 – 4 – 6
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2011 for the course PYSCHOLOGY 1101 taught by Professor Cameronmiller during the Fall '11 term at Georgia State.

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Ch 09 - ThinkingandLanguage Chapter9 1 Thinking

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