Ch 09 - ThinkingandLanguage Chapter9 1 Thinking...

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1 Thinking and Language Chapter 9
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2 Thinking Thinking, or  cognition,  refers to a process that  involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and  communicating.
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3 Cognitive Psychologists Thinking involves a number of mental activities,  which are listed below. Cognitive psychologists  study these in great detail. 1. Concepts 2. Problem solving 3. Decision making 4. Judgment formation
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4 Concepts The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.  There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the  concept of a  chair .
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5 Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Courtesy of Christine Brune
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6 Development of Concepts We form some concepts with definitions. For  example, a triangle has three sides. Mostly, we  form concepts with mental images or typical  examples ( prototypes ). For example, a robin is a  prototype of a bird, but a penguin is not. Triangle (definition) Bird (mental image) Daniel J. Cox/ Getty Images J. Messerschmidt/ The Picture Cube
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7 Problem Solving Problem solving strategies include: 1. Trial and Error 2. Algorithms 3. Heuristics 4. Insight
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8 Algorithms Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust  all possibilities before arriving at a solution.  Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word  using an algorithmic approach, we would face  907,200 possibilities.
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9 Heuristics Heuristics are simple,  thinking strategies that  allow us to make  judgments and solve  problems efficiently.  Heuristics are less time  consuming, but more  error-prone than  algorithms. B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images
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10 Heuristics Heuristics make it easier for us to use simple  principles to arrive at solutions to problems.  S P L O Y O C H Y G Put a Y at the end, and see if the word begins to make sense.
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11 Insight Insight involves a sudden  novel realization of a  solution to a problem.  Humans and animals  have insight. Grande using boxes to obtain food
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12 Insight Brain imaging and EEG  studies suggest that when  an insight strikes (the  “Aha” experience), it  activates the right temporal  cortex (Jung-Beeman &  others, 2004). The time  between not knowing the  solution and realizing it is  about 0.3 seconds. From Mark Jung-Beekman, Northwestern University and John Kounios, Drexel University
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13 Obstacles in Solving Problems Confirmation Bias:  A tendency to search for  information that confirms a personal bias.
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