Ch 08 - Memory Chapter8 1 Memory ,your...

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1 Memory Chapter 8
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2 Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your  neighbors, the English language, the national  anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a  stranger to you; every language foreign; every task  new; and even you yourself would be a stranger.
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3 The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted  over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve  information.
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4 Studying Memory:  Information Processing Models Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process
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5 Information Processing The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of  memory includes a)  sensory memory ,   b)  short-term  memory,  and c)  long-term memory . Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis
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6 Modifications to the Three-Stage  Model 1. Some information skips the first two stages and  enters long-term memory automatically. 1. Since we cannot focus on all the sensory  information received, we select information that is  important to us and actively process it into our  working memory
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7 Working Memory A newer understanding of short-term memory that  involves conscious, active processing of incoming  auditory and visual-spatial information, and of  information retrieved from long-term memory
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8 Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode 1. Some information (route to your school) is  automatically processed. 1. However, new or unusual information (friend’s  new cell-phone number) requires attention and  effort.
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9 Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information  effortlessly, such as the following:  1. Space:  While reading a textbook, you  automatically encode the place of a picture on a  page. 2. Time:  We unintentionally note the events that  take place in a day. 3. Frequency:  You effortlessly keep track of things  that happen to you.
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10 Effortful Processing Committing novel  information to memory  requires effort just like  learning a concept from a  textbook. Such processing  leads to durable and  accessible memories. Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit © Bananastock/ Alamy
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11 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually  requires rehearsal or  conscious repetition.  Ebbinghaus studied  rehearsal by using  nonsense syllables : TUV  YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de
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12 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense  syllables were practiced on  Day 1, the fewer repetitions were  required to remember them  on Day 2.
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Memory Effects 1. Spacing Effect:  We retain information  better when we rehearse over time. 1.
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2011 for the course PYSCHOLOGY 1101 taught by Professor Cameronmiller during the Fall '11 term at Georgia State.

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Ch 08 - Memory Chapter8 1 Memory ,your...

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