Ch 03 - Consciousness and the Two- Track Mind Chapter 3...

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Unformatted text preview: Consciousness and the Two- Track Mind Chapter 3 Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind The Brain and Consciousness Cognitive Neuroscience Dual Processing Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms and Sleep Why Do We Sleep? Sleep Disorders Dreams Hypnosis Facts and Falsehoods Explaining the Hypnotized State Drugs and Consciousness Dependence and Addiction Psychoactive Drugs Influences on Drug Use Consciousness, modern psychologists believe, is an awareness of ourselves and our environment. Forms of Consciousness Bill Ling/ Digital Vision/ Getty Images Christine Brune Stuart Franklin/ Magnum Photos AP Photo/ Ricardo Mazalan Inattentional Blindness Selective Attention Our conscious awareness processes only a small part of all that we experience. We intuitively make use of the information we are not consciously aware of. Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattentional blindness in which two-thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions. 1998 Psychonomic Society Inc. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. Simmons. Sleep & Dreams Sleep the irresistible tempter to whom we inevitably succumb. Mysteries about sleep and dreams have just started unraveling in sleep laboratories around the world. Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythms occur on a 24-hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness. Termed our biological clock, it can be altered by artificial light. Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease (morning) melatonin from the pineal gland and increase (evening) it at nightfall. Measuring sleep: About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Sleep Stages Hank Morgan/ Rainbow Awake but Relaxed When an individual closes his eyes but remains awake, his brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps) . A meditating person exhibits an alpha brain activity. During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps) . A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity. Sleep Stages 1-2 Theta Waves During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slow delta waves (1.5-4 cps) . Sleep Stages 3-4 Stage 5: REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state. A person during this sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movements (REM) and reports vivid dreams. 90-Minute Cycles During Sleep...
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Ch 03 - Consciousness and the Two- Track Mind Chapter 3...

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