Ch 04 - Nature,Nurture,and HumanDiversity Chapter4 1

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1 Nature, Nurture, and  Human Diversity Chapter 4
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2 Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual  Differences Behavior Geneticists  study our differences and  weigh the relative effects of heredity and  environment.
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3 Genes: Our Codes for Life Chromosomes  containing  DNA  ( deoxyribonucleic  acid ) are situated in the nucleus of a cell.
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4 Genes: Our Codes for Life Segments within DNA consist of  genes  that make  proteins to determine our development. 
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5 Genome Genome  is the set of complete instructions for  making an organism, containing all the genes in that  organism. Thus, the human genome makes us  human, and the genome for  drosophila  makes it a  common house fly.
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6 Twin and Adoption Studies Studying the effects of heredity and environment on  two sets of twins, identical and fraternal, has come in  handy.
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7 Separated Twins A number of studies compared identical twins reared  separately from birth, or close thereafter, and found  numerous similarities. Separated Twins Personality, Intelligence Abilities, Attitudes Interests, Fears Brain Waves, Heart Rate
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8 Separated Twins Critics of separated twin studies note that such  similarities can be found between strangers.  Researchers point out that differences between  fraternal twins are greater than identical twins. Bob Sacha
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9 Biological Versus  Adoptive Relatives Adoption studies, as opposed to twin studies, suggest  that adoptees (who may be biologically unrelated)  tend to be different from their adoptive parents and  siblings.
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10 Adoptive Studies Adoptive studies strongly point to the simple fact  that biologically related children turn out to be  different in a family. So investigators ask: Do siblings have differing experiences? Do siblings, despite sharing half of their genes, have different combinations of the other half of their genes? Ultimate question: Does parenting have an effect?
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11 Parenting Parenting does have an effect on biologically related  and unrelated children. Parenting Influences  Children’s Attitudes, Values Manners, Beliefs Faith, Politics
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12 Temperament and Heredity Temperament  refers to a person’s stable emotional  reactivity and intensity. Identical twins express  similar temperaments, suggesting heredity  predisposes temperament.
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13 Nature  and  Nurture Some human traits are fixed, such as having two  eyes.  However, most psychological traits are liable  to change with environmental experience. Genes provide choices for the organism to change its  form or traits when environmental variables change.  Therefore, genes are pliable or  self-regulating
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14 Gene-Environment Interaction Genes can influence traits which affect responses,  and environment can affect gene activity. A genetic predisposition that makes a child restless 
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Ch 04 - Nature,Nurture,and HumanDiversity Chapter4 1

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