Ch 02 - TheBiologyofMind Chapter2 TheBiologyofMind...

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The Biology of Mind   Chapter 2
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The Biology of Mind Neural Communication Neurons  How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System
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The Endocrine System The Brain • The Tools of Discovery: Having our Head  Examined  • Older Brain Structures • The Cerebral Cortex • Our Divided Brain • Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain 
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Neural Communication •The body’s information system is built from billions  of interconnected cells called  neurons .
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Neural Communication Note the similarities in the above brain regions, which are all  engaged in information processing. Neurobiologists and other investigators understand  that humans and animals operate similarly when  processing information.
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Neuron  A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different  parts.
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Parts of a Neuron  Cell Body:  Life support center of the neuron. Dendrites:   Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive  messages from other neurons. Axon:   Long single extension of a neuron, covered with  myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath  to insulate and speed up messages  through neurons. Terminal Branches of axon:  Branched endings of an axon  that transmit messages to other neurons.
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Action Potential A neural impulse. A brief  electrical charge that travels  down an axon and is  generated by the movement  of positively charged atoms  in and out of channels in the  axon’s membrane. 
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Threshold  Threshold:   Each neuron receives excitatory  and inhibitory signals from many neurons.  When the excitatory signals minus the  inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity  (threshold) the neuron fires an action  potential.
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Action Potential Properties All-or-None Response:  A strong stimulus can trigger  more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it  does not affect the action potentials strength or  speed. Intensity  of an action potential remains the same  throughout the length of the axon.
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Synapse  Synapse [SIN-aps]   a   junction between the axon tip of  the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of  the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the  synaptic gap  or  cleft.
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Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters  (chemicals) released from  the sending neuron travel  across the synapse and  bind to receptor sites on  the receiving neuron,  thereby influencing it to  generate an action  potential. 
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Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the  synapse are reabsorbed  into the sending neurons  through the process of  reuptake. This process  applies the brakes on  neurotransmitter action.
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Serotonin pathways are 
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2011 for the course PYSCHOLOGY 1101 taught by Professor Cameronmiller during the Fall '11 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.

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Ch 02 - TheBiologyofMind Chapter2 TheBiologyofMind...

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