Ch 01 - Thinking Critically With Psychological Science...

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Unformatted text preview: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Chapter 1 Psychology • We define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings). Why Do Psychology? 1. How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions? 2. The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do! What About Intuition & Common Sense? Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error. “I know there’s no evidence that shows the death penalty has a deterrent effect, but I just feel in my gut it must be true” Limits of Intuition Personal interviewers may rely too much on their “gut feelings” when meeting with job applicants. Intuition is important but we often underestimate its perils Taxi/ Getty Images “ The first principle is that you must not fool yourself- and you are the easiest person to fool.” – Richard Feynman (1997) Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. Hindsight Bias Hindsight Bias • Good ideas in psychology usually have an oddly familiar quality, and the moment we encounter them we feel certain that we once came close to thinking the same thing ourselves and simply failed to write it down • Good ideas are like good inventions; once created- they seem obvious Overconfidence Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know. Anagram You are not alone… • Even “Experts” are often wrong • One study, examining expert predictions of world events found that when “experts” made predictions with 80 % confidence on average, they were right less than 40% of the time. • Regardless- even those who erred maintained their confidence stating that they were “ almost right .” • almost right?????? Hindsight bias and Overconfidence • Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overesitmate our intuition. • But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong)....
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2011 for the course PYSCHOLOGY 1101 taught by Professor Cameronmiller during the Fall '11 term at Georgia State.

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Ch 01 - Thinking Critically With Psychological Science...

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