Lab Exam 1 Review

# Lab Exam 1 Review - Section 1 Scientific Method and...

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Section 1 Scientific Method and Statistics

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Statistical Evaluation and the Chi Square Analysis (X 2 ) Null hypothesis = assumes no real difference between measured and expected values, therefore How good is the “fit” between these values If the fit is imperfect, how much deviation is allowed Chi Square Analysis = evaluation of deviation and sample size Value used to evaluate deviation and expectation due to chance X 2 = total of (observed - expected) 2 expected
Statistical Evaluation and the Chi Square Analysis (X 2 ) p value = probability of obtaining observed deviation by chance alone, therefore the larger the p value, the closer the data are to ideal values. Standard utilized: p value < 0.05 -----> reject null hypothesis p value > 0.05 -----> fail to reject null hypothesis "Degrees of Freedom” ( df ). The df is one less than the number of different outcomes possible . These simple steps must be followed to determine p , utilizing the graph.

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Review 1. What is the hypothesis about the weight of 100 seeds? 2. What is the importance of large sample size? 3. What is Chi Square Analysis ? Value used to evaluate deviation and expectation due to chance 4. What is p value ? probability of obtaining observed deviation by chance alone, therefore the larger the p value, the closer the data are to ideal values 5. If p value < 0.05, reject null hypothesis or fail to reject null hypothesis? 6. Chi-square? White 3 5 non-white 7 5
This is the term that describes the curved liquid on a graduated cylinder at which you read volume.

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What is the MENISCUS
This is the type of analysis we performed using the following items:

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What is CHI SQUARE
This is the Chi Square equation.

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What is X 2 = total of (observed - expected) 2 expected
Using the following formula, this is the X 2 value for a null hypothesis of an expected 1:1 ratio of white vs. non-white in the experiment below. (O-E) 2 E X 2 = total of 20 random beads are drawn from a bag containing ½ white and ½ red beads.

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What is 0.2 (or 2/10 or 1/5)
Knowing X 2 and degrees of freedom, this is the value that you can find using this chart.

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What is the P VALUE
This number represents the degrees of freedom of a coin flip.

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What is ONE
Section 2 Chemical Concepts and Organic Molecules

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Biological Molecules Carbohydrates: reducing sugars monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, starch Proteins: 20 amino acids Lipids: insoluble in water Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
Carbohydrates Monosaccharide

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Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis To form by removing water To break apart with water
Carbohydrates Disaccharide - Sucrose

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Identification of Biological Molecules Utilizing Solutions X, Y, and Z Benedict's test for reducing sugars pos. = orange neg. = light blue Iodine test for starch pos. = black neg. = amber Biuret test for protein pos. = violet neg. = light blue Sudan IV test for lipids pos. = confluent red solution neg. = suspension of reagent (insoluble)
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## This note was uploaded on 03/18/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 1103 taught by Professor Blaustein during the Fall '09 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.

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Lab Exam 1 Review - Section 1 Scientific Method and...

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