Ethical Judgment

Ethical Judgment - Ethical Judgment & Cognition...

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Unformatted text preview: Ethical Judgment & Cognition Cognition Marriott School of Management Romney Institute of Public Management Ethics has much more to do with than just your desire to do right There are things out there that distort our thinking that are completely disconnected with our solid grounding in ethics and values It is much more complicated than a desire to make right choices CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS Individual Differences Cognitive Biases Process of Individual Ethical Decision­Making Behavior MORAL AWARENESS ETHICAL JUDGMENT ETHICAL BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONS Group and Organizational Pressures Organizational Culture Characteristics of Individuals Characteristics INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Kohlberg & Moral Development COGNITIVE BIASES Theories about how we view the world Theories about how we view ourselves Cognitive Moral Development Cognitive Level I (Preconventional) Stage 1 - Obedience Stage 2 - Exchange Level II (Conventional) Stage 3 - Conformity - Social Approval Stage 4 - Upholding duties, laws Level III (Postconventional or Principled) Stage 5 - Justice and rights COGNITIVE MORAL COGNITIVE MORAL DEVELOPMENT Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 Development Stage Obedience - Punishment avoidance Exchange - Reward seeking Conformity - Social approval, Conformity Relationships Relationships Social justice - Duties and Laws Human Rights and Justice Universal Ethics - theoretical Reasoning Self Self Social groups Society Principled Principled Source: Adapted from Lawrence Kohlberg, The Philosophy of Moral Development New York: Harper & Row, 1981). Kohlberg’ Stages of Moral Development s Source: Adapted from Lawrence Kohlberg, The Philosophy of Moral Development (New York: Source: Adapted from Lawrence Kohlberg, The Philosophy of Moral Development (New York: Harper & Row, 1981). COGNITIVE BIASES COGNITIVE • • HOW WE VIEW THE WORLD Cascade of Consequences Judgment of Risk Perception of Causes • • • • HOW WE VIEW OURSELVES Illusion of Superiority Self-Serving Fairness Bias Overconfidence • • HOW WE VIEW THE WORLD HOW • THE CASCADE OF CONSEQUENCES • Really boils down to Really BOUNDED RATIONALITY and and SATISFICING • • • THE CASCADE OF CONSEQUENCES THE Ignoring Low-Probability Events Limiting the Search for Stakeholders Ignoring the Possibility that the Public Will “Find Out” Discounting the Future Undervaluing Collective Outcomes COGNITIVE BIASES COGNITIVE • • HOW WE VIEW THE WORLD Cascade of Consequences Judgment of Risk Perception of Causes • • • • HOW WE VIEW OURSELVES Illusion of Superiority Self-Serving Fairness Bias Overconfidence • • JUDGMENT OF RISK JUDGMENT Denying Uncertainty Hindsight Bias Hindsight Risk Trade-Offs RISK TRADE-OFFS RISK • • SCENARIO A: There is a 20 percent chance that the chemicals in There your city’s sewage processing plant might be causing ten cancer-related illnesses per year. The city must decide whether to purchase a multimillion-dollar filtration system that would reduce this probability to a 10 percent chance RISK TRADE-OFFS RISK • • SCENARIO B: There is a 10 percent chance that the chemicals in There your city’s sewage processing plant that might be causing ten cancer-related illnesses per year. The city must decide whether to purchase a multimillion-dollar filtration system that would entirely eliminate this risk JUDGMENT OF RISK JUDGMENT Denying Uncertainty Risk Trade-Offs Risk Framing Risk RISK FRAMING RISK A llarge car manufacturer has recently been hit with a arge number of economic difficulties. It appears that it needs to close three plants and lay off 6,000 employees. The vice president of production, who has been exploring alternative ways to avoid the crisis, has developed two plans • RISK FRAMING RISK Plan A will save one of the three plants and 2,000 jobs Plan B has a one-third probability of saving all three plants and all 6,000 jobs, but has a two-thirds probability of saving no plants and no jobs RISK FRAMING RISK Plan C will result in the loss of two of the three plants and 4,000 jobs and Plan D has a two-thirds probability of resulting in the loss of all three plants and all 6,000 jobs, but has a one-third probability of losing no plants and no jobs Plan A will save one of the three plants and 2,000 jobs RISK FRAMING RISK Plan B has a one-third probability of saving all three plants and all 6,000 jobs, but has a two-thirds probability of saving no plants and no jobs Plan C will result in the loss of two of the three plants Plan C and 4,000 jobs and Plan D has a two-thirds probability of resulting in the loss of all three plants and all 6,000 jobs, but has a one-third probability of losing no plants and no jobs ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT The tendency to persist in an ineffective course of The action when evidence indicates that the project is doomed to failure. doomed COGNITIVE BIASES COGNITIVE • • HOW WE VIEW THE WORLD Perception of Causes PERCEPTION OF CAUSES PERCEPTION Focus on People Different Events – different systems produce different Different results results Ferry - disaster systemic failure – but we want to blace Ferry blame on one person blame • A Change in structure – brings or removes opportunity Sins of Omission – Mt. Everest Sins HOW WE VIEW OURSELVES HOW Ethnocentrism ILLUSION OF SUPERIORITY Illusion of Favorability Illusion of Optimism Illusion of Control Illusion Fundamental Attribution Error Fundamental HOW WE VIEW OURSELVES HOW ILLUSION OF SUPERIORITY SELF-SERVING FAIRNESS BIAS OVERCONFIDENCE LOCUS OF CONTROL LOCUS OF CONTROL Individual’s perception of how much Individual’s control he or she exerts over events in life. control External Internal Thus, locus of control is conceptualised as referring to a unidimensional continuum, ranging from external to internal: External Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behaviour is guided by fate, luck, or other external circumstanc es Internal Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behaviour is guided by his/her personal decisions and efforts. Characteristics of Individuals Characteristics INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Kohlberg & Moral Development “Do I do the right things for the right reason?” Kant – Motive Matters Quiz Show: Van Dorn saw himself doing the right thing for the right reason – a good guy. Where did he go wrong? Where did he cross the line? Kant sees Utilitarianism as doing the right thing (behaving in an ethical way) for the wrong reason (to maximize my welfare/happiness/pleasure) Kant also rejects doing the right thing to reward or promote virtue. http://www.justiceharvard.org/index.php?option=com_content& “The sight of a being who is not adorned with a single feature of a pure and good will, enjoying unbroken prosperity, can never give pleasure to an impartial rational spectator. Thus a good will appears to constitute the indispensable condition even of being worthy of happiness.” - I. Kant • Can’t derive ethical principles from desires for happiness or PREFERENCES. This would mean that morality is relative and varies from culture to culture – There would be no ability to distinguish ultimate right from wrong – only the ability calculate • • • Kant bases ethics on the human ability to reason, human dignity, and freedom to choose right from wrong (agency) If we are “clumps of meat,” (an empirical view) governed by natural laws, then we are not truly agents able to distinguish right from wrong. • Knowing right from wrong gives our lives meaning. How can we ultimately get “meaning out of meat” Kant says our reasoning ability makes us more than just “meat” (brains, chemicals, hormones) but beings with dignity worthy of respect • • How do we see ourselves? • Do we see ourselves as worthy of respect? Even from ourselves? When we respect ourselves, we are prone toward dignified behavior. We have integrity and responsibility along with human rights, and freedom • • Is there such a thing as true altruism? • Hedonism: all motivations are for the benefit of self Are you a hedonist or an altruist? • COGNITIVE BIASES COGNITIVE • how we view the world how we view ourselves – Am I a hedonist or how an altruist? Do I think I’m an altruist, but am really not? Would Kant approve of my motives? Do I pursue happiness? Or does happiness Do pursue ensue? ensue • • • • Script Processing – what are scripts? Script A schema (pl. schemata or schemas), in psychology and cognitive science, describes any of several concepts including: • An organized pattern of thought or behavior. A structured cluster of pre-conceived ideas. A mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. A specific knowledge structure or cognitive representation of the self. A mental framework centering on a specific theme, that helps us to organize social information. Structures that organize our knowledge and assumptions about something and are used for interpreting and processing information. • • • • • Cognitive Barriers to Good Ethical Judgment Judgment Barriers to Fact Gathering Overconfidence “Confirmation Trap” Confirmation http://www.fastcompany.com/1657515/a-theory-called-a-fundamental http://www.fastcompany.com/1657515/a-theory-called-a-fundamenta Barriers to Consideration of Consequences Reduced number ignore consequences that affect few Risk underestimated: illusion of optimism, illusion of control More Cognitive Barriers More Barriers to thoughts about integrity Illusion of superiority Barriers to attention to gut Careful! Gut may be wrong Hobbes Hobbes • Hereby it is manifest, that during the time Hereby men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, is every man, against every man .... In such condition, there is no place for industry...or culture...or knowledge...no arts; no letters, no society; and which is worst of all, there is continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man is solitary poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Locke Locke • Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we Let say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas; how comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer in one word, from experience; in that all our knowledge is founded, and from that it ultimately derives itself. Rousseau Rousseau • Above all, let us not conclude, with Hobbes, that because Above man has no idea of goodness, he must be naturally wicked; that he is vicious because he does not know virtue...so it may be justly said that savages are not bad merely because they do not know what it is to be good: for it is neither the development of the understanding nor the restraint of the law that hinders them from doing ill; but the peacefulness of their passions, and their ignorance of vices .... It is then certain that compassion is a natural feeling, which by moderating the violence of love of self in each individual, contributes to the preservation of the whole species. ...
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