Definitions_Chapters_4_5_6

Definitions_Chapters_4_5_6 - Definitions Chapter 4: Cell...

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Definitions Chapter 4: Cell Theory: states that; all organisms are composed of cells; cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms and; cells come only from preexisting cells because cells are self-reproducing. P 60 blue box Surface Area to Volume Ratio: by cutting a large cube into smaller cubes provides a lot more surface area per volume, and vice-versa. P 61 Light Microscope: light rays passing through a specimen are brought into focus by a set of glass lenses, and the resulting image is then viewed by the human eye. P 62 Transmission Electron Microscope: electrons passing through a specimen are brought into focus by a set of electromagnetic lenses, and the resulting image is projected onto a fluorescent screen of photographic film. P 62 Scanning Electron Microscope: a narrow beam of electrons is scanned over the surface of the spacimen, which is coated with thin metal layer. P 62 Immunoflourescent Microscope: identified the makeup of the protein components within the cytoskeletal network. P 78 Prokaryotic Cells: cells that lack a membrane-bounded nucleus. P 64 The Three Domains of Life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. P 348 Prokaryotic: lack a membrane-bounded nucleus. P 7 or 64 Eukarotyic: cell that has a nucleus. Coccus: a spherical-shaped bacterium. P 64 Spirillum: long, rod-shaped bacterium that is twisted into a rigid spiral; if the spiral is flexible rather than rigid, it is called spirillum. P 64 Bacillus: a rod-shaped bacterium; also genus of bacteria. P 64 Peptidoglycan: unique molecule found in bacterial cell walls. P 43, 364. Cytoplasm: contents of a cell between the nucleus region of bacteria and the plasma membrane. P 64 Flagellum: long, slander extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, and sperm. P 65 Nucleoid: region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelop. 64, 164. Organelles: small, often membranous structure in the cytoplasm having a specific structure and function. 66 Endomembrane System: cellular system that consists of the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and vesicles. 72 Plasma Membrane: membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from cell. P 64 Cell Wall: structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cell’s shape and rigidity. P 64, 99. Nucleus: membrane bounded organelle within a eukaryotic cell that contains chromossomes and controls the structure and function of the cell. P 64
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Nucleolus: dark-staining, spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subunits. 70 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER): membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in cells; has attached ribosomes. P 72
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Definitions_Chapters_4_5_6 - Definitions Chapter 4: Cell...

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