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Unformatted text preview: Definitions Chapter 7: 1. Photosynthesis: proccess that converts solar energy into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate. 2. Autotrophs: photosynthetic organisms, including land plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. 3. Cyanobacteria: photosynthetic bacteria that contains chlorophyll and releases oxygen; formely called a blue-green alga. 65 4. Chloroplast: membrane bounded organelle in algae and land plants with chlorophyll containing membranous thylakoids; where photosynthesis takes place. 119 5. Stomata: small opening between two guard cells on the underside of the leaf epidermis through which gases pass. 119. 6. Chlorophyll: green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in algal and land plant photosynthesis; occurs as chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B. 119 7. Light Reactions: portion of photosynthesis that captures solar energy and takes place in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts; it produces ATP and NADPH. 8. Calvin Cycle (Dark Cycle, Light Independent Reactions): portion of photosynthesis that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and can occur in the dark. 9. NADPH: coenzyme of oxidation-reduction that accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become NADPH + H + . During photosynthesis, NADPH participates in the reduction of carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate. 112 10. Stroma: fluis within a chloroplast that contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates during photosynthesis. 119 11. Thylakoid Membrane: flattened sac within a granum whose membrane contains chlorophyll and where the light reactions occurs. 119 12. Absorption Spectra: pattern of absorption when pigments take up various wave lenghts of light. 13. Photosystem I: is the second photosystem in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae, plants, and some bacteria. 14. Photosystem I I: is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions. It is located in the thylakoid membrane of plants, algae and cyanobacteria 15. Electron Transport Chain: passage of electrons along a series of membrane bound electron carrier molecules from a higher to lower energy level; the energy released is used for the synthesis of ATP. 16. ATP Synthase: complex of proteins in the cristae of mithocondria and thylakoid membrane of chloroplast that produces ATP as hydrogen flows down a concentration gradient. 113, 124 17. Hydrogen ion (H+): hydrogen atom that has lost its electron and therefore bears a positive charge. 32 18. Carbon Fixation: photosynthetic reaction in which carbon dioxide is attached to an organic compound. 126 19. RuBP: an enzyme that starts the Calvin cycle reactions by catalyzing attachment of the 19....
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