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Definitions_Exam_I - Sofia Medeiros Definitions week 1...

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Sofia Medeiros Definitions week 1 Chapter 1: 1. Biology: the scientific study of life that consists of many disciplines and areas of specialty. 2. Cell: the basic unit of structure and function of all living things. 3. Organelle: the compartments of a eukaryotic cell. 4. Tissue: is composed of specialized cells of the same type that perform a common function in the body. 5. Organ: is composed of two or more types of tissue working together to perform particular functions. 6. Organ System: contains many different organs that cooperate to carry out a process, such as the digestion of food. 7. Population: all members of a single species occupaying a particular area at the same time. 8. Community: all the various populations of multiple species interacting at a locale. 9. Ecosystem: contains a community of populations and also the abiotic environment. 10. Emergent Property: interactions between the individuals parts. 11. Inductive Reasoning: using specific observations and the process of logic and reasoning to arrive at a hypothesis. 12. Deductive Reasoning: process of logic and reasoning using “if…then” statements; it happens whenever a person uses creative thinking to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole. 13. Empiricism: method of observation and experiment to arrive at a conclusion. Often, empiricism is contrasted with rationalism. 14. The Scientific Method: standard series of steps used in gaining new knowledge that is widely accepted among scientists. 15. Hypothesis: a possible explanation for a natural event. 16. Control Variable: A variable that held constant to prevent its effects on the outcome and therefore may verify the behavior of and the relationship between independent and dependent variables. 17. Experimental Variable: factor of the experiement being tested. 18. Positive Control: an experiment whose result is already known to be positive, it is used to check that nothing went wrong during the procedure 19. Negative Control: an experiment done with a sample that should normally yield a negative result. It allows to check for contamination of the reagents or artifacts that would give false positive. 20. Evolution: descent of organisms from common ancestors with the development of genetic and phenotypic changes over time that make them more suited to the environment.
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21. Natural Selection: mechanism of evolution cause by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaptation to the environment. 22. Cell Theory: all organisms are composed of cells, and new cells only come from preexisting cells. 23. Molecular Basis of Inheritance: the DNA. Each strand of DNA is a chain of nucleotides, matching each other in the center of form what look like rungs on a twisted ladder. 24. Morphology: the study of the form or shape of an organism.
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Definitions_Exam_I - Sofia Medeiros Definitions week 1...

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