Definitions_Exam_IV

Definitions_Exam_IV - Chapter 10: 1. Diploid: A cell or an...

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Chapter 10: 1. Diploid: A cell or an organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes: usually, one set from the mother and another set from the father. In a diploid state the haploid number is doubled, thus, this condition is also known as 2n. 2. Haploid: A cell or an organism having half of the number of chromosomes in somatic cells 3. Fertilization: A process in sexual reproduction that involves the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes (each with a single, haploid set of chromosomes) to produce a diploid zygote. 4. Zygote: A cell in diploid state following fertilization or union of haploid male sex cell (e.g. sperm) and haploid female sex cell (e.g. ovum). 5. Gene: The fundamental, physical, and functional unit of heredity. 6. Allele: One member of a pair (or any of the series) of genes occupying a specific spot on a chromosome (called locus) that controls the same trait. 7. Homologue: A chromosome that is similar in physical attributes and genetic information to another chromosome with which it pairs during meiosis. A member of homologous chromosome. 8. Meiosis I: Prophase of meiosis I (prophase I) is a more elaborate process than prophase of mitosis (and usually takes much longer). 9. Meiosis II: Chromosome behavior in meiosis II is like that of mitosis. 10. Synapsis: The pairing of homologous chromosomes during the meiotic phase of cell division 11. Crossing Over: A process occurring during meiosis wherein two chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material. 12. Genetic Diversity: Genetic variation between and within species, which is measured by determining the proportion of polymorphic loci across the genome, or by the number of heterozygous individuals in a population. 13. Independent Assortment: The process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis resulting in the production of genetically unique gametes. 14. Recombination: The process of forming new allelic combination in offspring by exchanges between genetic materials (as exchange of DNA sequences between DNA molecules).
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15. Bivalent: A pair of homologous chromosomes in synapsis during meiosis. 16. Metaphase I: The stage in the first meiotic division of meiosis that follows prophase I. Homologous chromosomes pair with each other to form tetrads of four chromatids and they align themselves along a single plane in the centre of the cell. Homologous recombination generally occurs during this stage. This stage ends as soon as the homologous chromosomes start being pulled away from each other, to opposite ends of the cell. 17. Metaphase II: The stage in the second meiotic division of meiosis that follows prophase II, during which the chromosomes are aligned along a single plane in the centre of each cell produced during the first meiotic division (two total cells). Each chromosome can clearly be observed as a pair of joined, identical chromatids. The stage ends as soon as the centromeres connecting the pairs to each other break. 18. Alternation of Generation: The occurrence in one life history of two or more different forms
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Definitions_Exam_IV - Chapter 10: 1. Diploid: A cell or an...

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