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Sociology Final Study Guide

Sociology Final Study Guide - 18:10:00 Key Concepts...

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08/12/2010 18:10:00 Key Concepts- Chapters 9-18 Chapter 9- Religion Religion A system of beliefs and practices around sacred things, a set of shared “stories” that guide belief and action Religion plays a part in structuring inequality too. The sociology of religion looks beyond personal experiences of faith and seeks to uncover the ways that the personal is socially patterned by religion, sometimes in powerful and consequential ways. Religious beliefs help shape social behavior by setting expectations and helping people distinguish between right and wrong Civil religion A set of sacred beliefs so commonly accepted by most people that it becomes part of the national culture Americans are more religious than any other industrialized nation in the world, measured in terms of personal convictions and religious afflictions Sacred vs. profane Sacred describes holy things meant for special use and kept separate from the profane. The sacred realm is unknowable and mystical, so it inspires us with feelings of awe and wonder. Profane describes the things of mundane, everyday life. Secularism Is a general movement away form religiosity and spiritual belief toward a rational, scientific orientation, a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of separation of church and state Challenges religiosity, spirituality, and faith in something sacred It is oriented toward a rational, scientific worldview Theism The worship of a god or gods, as in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism Ethicalism
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The adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life, as in Buddhism and Taoism Animism The belief that spirits roam the natural word, as in totemism Denominations Big groups of congregations that share the same faith and are governed under one administrative umbrella Congregations Groups of people that gather together, especially for worship Marx- religion and class oppression Marx’s conflict theory of religion links two ideas that might seem at odds: inequality and faith. Religions is a means of stratification, of allocating rewards such that some people benefit handsomely from the fruits of society while may others suffer. Weber- religion and capitalism, ideas as a historical driving force To Weber, the casual connection works both ways, creating an “elective affinity” between the economic and the cultural If history is a train, moving along through eras of invention, war, disaster, and enlightenment, ideas are the “switchmen” of the tracks. Ideas hold the potential to change the course of history in unexpected, counterintuitive ways. Capitalism was able to sustain itself without the religious meanings crucial to
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Sociology Final Study Guide - 18:10:00 Key Concepts...

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