ANP 325 2- Primate Taxonomy

ANP 325 2- Primate Taxonomy - February 8, 2011 “use”...

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Unformatted text preview: February 8, 2011 “use” luau lummm-m: unMan“ Lemuriformes Lemuriformes Lorisiformes ' Lorisiformes Tarsiformes Tarsiformes Platyrrhini Platyrrhini SUBC-FEDER - . . = I malomlm Um mm” {I.\r:'~u.-I.K.,rrr_1nr -. and huma. 5, Ceroopithecoidea Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea Hominoidea Two main hypotheses of primate subordinal relationships Prosimian distribution 1. Strepsirhines: Lemurs .r‘ Five families confined to Madagascar Lemuridae Indriidae Cheirogaleidae Lepilemuridae Daubentonidae Lenses :1 Gholrogaleida. . I Galaaos Lemurlds.chllemunus E Tars'c” Indriids. Ave-Area Lemurids 5 genera Lemur (ring-tailed lemurs) Eulemur Hapa/emur (bamboo lemur) Pro/emur (bamboo lemur) Varecia (ruffed lemurs) Hapalemur and Pro/emur - Specialized bamboo feeders — Prefer different parts - H. aureus eats shoots with high concentrations of cyanide Eulemur - Sexually dichromatic - All species are cathemeral - Small groups and monogamous pairs Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) - Partly terrestrial - Multi-male/multi-female groups — Female matrilines form core of groups AnKive nut-(3E5 OF UFF DN EAHYH AnKive Forlhuusands of videos imaga arid fact-files illustralmg the world's speues visit m.nrk|v..ur—g www. ar‘KiVE. Dr‘g This media is pmleclad hy copyright, plaasa see and nlclip furdetails, Use nfthis media is restricted phase see www.mkivanrg/iannsihtmli Varecia - Produce litters that are parked in nests while the mother forages — Females have three pairs of nipples - Infant care provided by multiple individuals Indriids Vertical clingers and leapers 3genera - Propithecus(sifaka) - Avahi (woolly lemur) - Indri Indri indri AnKive IMAGES OF l_ll=E ON EARTH AHMVB For thousands a! video: images and teatime; illustrating the world's species visit www.arklvn.nr-g www. ar‘klve . Dr‘g ms media ls pmleclad by cnpyrigm, please see and ulclip fnrdalails, Use ul nus media is restricted piaase sea wwwarkwanrgflarmsjliml. Microcebus (Mouse lemur) - Solitary nocturnal foragers — Multiple individuals share a single sleep site — Matrilineal structuring of population and home ranges - Adaptation to periods of food scarcity — Double body mass during wet season — Torpor Propithecus verrauxi I AFIKlVE mullet-Ia H a; nun Uwonlnunwinuuirduznbl Cheirogaleids 5 genera: Microcebus (mouse lemur) Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemur) Allocebus (hairy-eared dwarf lemur) Mirza (giant mouse lemur) Phanur (fork-marked lemur) Microcebus (Mouse lemur) - Females are receptive one day per year, but their cycles are not synchronized - During the breeding season, male testes size increases Fork-marked lemur Daubentonid (Aye-aye) Cheirogaleus (Dwarf lemurs) - Hibernate during the dry season — Store fat in their tails during wet season — Males emerge from hibernation earlier than females to patrol home range - Produce litters of 1-4 infants — Breeding pairs exhibit dramatic weight loss during periods of infant care - Only distantly related to other lemuriforms - Solitary and aggressive to same-sex individuals - Specialized adaptations for extractive foraging — Immatures are highly reliant on observation-based learning Energy conservation hypothesis - Madagascar has extreme seasonality of resource availability and temperature that is not predictable — Highly seasonal reproduction — Infants are weaned when resources are most available Lepilemurids/Megaladapids (Sportive lemurs) Lepilemur - Nocturnal - Dispersed monogamy at most sites - Highlyfolivorous Daubentonid (Aye-aye) AnKive IMAGES OF LIFE ON EARTH m thousands of videos. Imaga and mamas illustrating the worms spams visit www.arkivu.nrg AHKive wwwer‘klve. Dr‘g This media is pmleclad by copyrlgm. phase 562 and ur clip lat details. Use cums media is restricted. please see wwwarkwamrgliermsmmt Energy conservation hypothesis 0 Madagascar has extreme seasonality of resource availability and temperature that is not predictable — flgfly seasonal reproduction — Infants are weaned when resources are most available 1 What are the consequences of extreme seasonality in reproduction? Female dominance in lemurs - All females are gestating and lactating simultaneously — During periods of low resource availability - Females have priority of access to food resources in all species — In group-living species, translates to female dominance Evolutionary disequilibrium hypothesis - Large-bodied raptors and lemur species have recently become extinct - Opened niches for smaller-bodied species — Diurnality — Terrestriality — Group-living van Schaik and Kappeler 1996 2. Strepsirhines: Lorises - Africa — Galagos (bushbabies) — Pottos - Asia — Lorises “Acrobatic leapers and slow creepers" Subfossil lemurs - Recent extinctions due to human behavior — H u nting — Aridification - Nested within extant families, but larger than living species - Adaptations not found in extant species 2. Strepsirhines: Lorises - Africa — Galagos (bushbabies) — Pottos - Asia — Lorises AnKive iMAGES OF LIFF DN EARTH AHKive For Ihuusands ul videos. imaga and lecH’Ii-zs illustrating the would". species vlsll www.arkiva.ur-g www. Eir‘klve. DFQ This media ls pmtected by copyright, piaasa see and or clip lnr details, Use 0! this media is restrictedi please sea www.mkivamrgtiemslhtmll . Furlhuusands ul videos, lmags and A n K fectafiles illustrath the world's specter; IMAGES OF LIFE ON EARTH visit www.arkIv-.ur-g AnKive www. EIPKlVE.DFg This mama is pmlecled by copyright, please see and ofclip lar details, Lisa ul this media Is restricted. plaase sea www.mklvamrgftamstl. African lorisiforms: niche separation in sympatric species - In addition, lorises and pottos are adapted to eact toxic insects — Reduced basal metabolic rate — Behavioral adaptations Communication in nocturnal primates - Lack the visual acuity of anthropoid primates — Retain Jacobson‘s organ African lorisiforms: niche separation in sympatric species Galago demidovii Euolicus elegantulus Galaga alleni @693 Pemdicficus patio Arctocebus calabarensis El Gum I Fruit El Insect: El other Charles-Dominlque 1977 African lorisiforms: niche separation in sympatric species - In addition, lorises and pottos are adapted to east toxic insects — Reduced basal metabolic rate — Behavioral adaptations - Lorises produce a toxic saliva that they use to deter predators Charles-Dominique 1977 Communication in nocturnal primates Lack the visual acuity of anthropoid primates — Retain Jacobson’s organ Complex system of olfactory communication Distributlon of scent glands on body Communication in nocturnal primates Communication in nocturnal primates - Lack the visual acuity of - Galagos have a rich vocal anthropoid primates _ repertoire — Retain Jacobson’s organ I — Calling bouts can last up to - Complex system of 30 "limes olfactory communication ‘ Ead‘ Spades has a unique I I I loud call used to announce — Advertise sexual receptIVIty presence and locate mates — Identify individuals rimm. ' 5mm.- awn...“ .unm I.“ .m. Distribution of scent glands on body Slender Ions Communication in nocturnal primates Social behavior in “solitary” species - Galagos have a rich vocal repertoire — Calling bouts can last up to 30 minutes — Each species has a unique loud call used to announce presence and locate mates Lorises and pottos have vocalizations that contain an ultrasonic component Social behavior in “solitary” species - Nocturnal primates are generally considered to be cryptic species — Avoid predators by being silent Slender Iorls - Nocturnal primates are generally considered to be cryptic species Social behavior in “solitary” species - Nocturnal primates are generally considered to be cryptic species — Avoid predators by being silent - Sleep sites are generally shared by multiple individuals in the “neighborhood” Social behavior in “solitary” species Social behavior in “solitary” species - Nocturnal primates are generally considered to be cryptic species — Avoid predators by being silent Sleep Sites are generally shared Galago “who”. by multiple individuals in the I “neighborhood” . 3 ~50% of foraging time in proximity to another adult individual Galago zanziban'cus Life history of lorisiform primates 2. Tarsiers Give birth to single infant - Only faunivorous primate 0r tWins - Variation in social behavior Two birth seasons per among species year — Traditionally believed to be Infants are parked in tree monogamws I hollows or forks while the _ Pg'ygynws soc'a' groups found in many species mother forages Lorises have the slowest life history of small- bodied primates - Social foraging at night, 0 Social foraging at night, especially with the full i ' especially with the full moon moon — One of three nocturnal ' . .. - — One of three nocturnal mammals to exhibit - " mammals to exhibit “lunarphilia” - _ “lunarphilia” Costs: Increased visibility to predators Benefits: Increased insect availability 3. Platyrrhines: New World monkeys Cebines: Squirrel monkeys and capuchins 2 genera: - Cebus (capuchin monkey) ___E_g|__!alpn_____ - Saimiri (Squirrel monkey) Cebus and Saimiri - Most encephalized Neotropical primates — Multi-male, multi-female groups — Omnivorous diet obtained through extractive foraging (especially Cebus) — Slow life histories relative to body size Callitrichines: Marmosets and tamarins Callitrichines: Marmosets and tamarins 5 genera: . . ' _ o All digits but the hallux Callithn'x (marmoset) _ . _ I . have tegulae, rather than Cebue/Ia (pygmy marmoset) nf'fdaptafion m gumnivory Leontoplthecus (lion tamarin) _ _ Marmosets repeatedlyfeed Sagumus (tamarin) ' at the same tree, which Callimico (Goeldi‘s monkey) ' they defend from other . groups 0 Group composition varies across species Callitrichines: Marmosets and tamarins Cooperative breeders: - Most groups have a single breeding female — Produces twin births twice per year — Other group members are responsible for carrying the infants after birth In captivity, breeding females can hormonally suppress ovulation in subordinates Infant survival depends on having helpers Atelines: Howlers, spider monkeys, and muiriquis 5 genera: - Ate/es (spider monkey) Brachyteles (muriqui) Lagothrix (woolly monkey) Oreonax (yellow-tailed woolly) Alouatta (howler monkey) Ate/es and Brachyte/es - Semi-brachiators - Fission-fusion dynamics — Community breaks into smaller foraging groups with fluid membership - Male dispersal l Behavioral convergence with chimpanzees and bonobos Aotus: Owl monkey - Only nocturnal anthropoid — Exhibit flexibility in activity pattern in response to seasonal variation - Serial monogamists — Periodic replacement of one partner by an intruding member of the same sex - Extensive male care of infants Ate/es and Brachyteles - Semi-brachiators - Fission-fusion dynamics — Community breaks into smaller foraging groups with fluid membership - Male dispersal Alouatta (howler monkey) - Most folivorous (and most widely distributed) Neotropical primate — Energy minimizers: spend lots of time resting and digesting - Typically considered to be the loudest land animal — Use loud calls to maintain spacing between groups Muriqul 10 I For thnusands a! videos images and factaflies iflustralmg the world's species :MABES cu: LIFE ON EARTH visil www.carklvnmi-g AnKive WWW. ar‘KiveDr‘g This media is pmtecied by cupyright, ptaasa see and urciip lur details. Use cl this media is restricted please see wmarkwaprgliemshimt Cal/icebus and Pithecia - Pair-bonded — Offspring may remain in natal group past sexual maturity in some habitats - Aggressively defend territories from neighboring groups Chriopotes and Cacajao - Large multi-male/multi-female groups - Longest daily travel distance of any Neotropical primate — Found in seasonally-flooded habitats with low production 4 genera: Cal/icebus (titi monkey) Pithecia (saki monkeys) Chiropotes (bearded saki) Cacajao (uakari) Cal/icebus and Pithecia - Pair-bonded — Offspring may remain in natal group past sexual maturity in some habitats - Aggressively defend territories from neighboring groups Chriopotes and Cacajao - Large multi-male/multi-female groups - Longest daily travel distance of any neotropical primate — Found in seasonally-flooded habitats with low production 1 Adaptated for seed predation 11 ...
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ANP 325 2- Primate Taxonomy - February 8, 2011 “use”...

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