PSL200-201%20term%20tests%202009-10

PSL200-201%20term%20tests%202009-10 - Name Student Number...

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Unformatted text preview: Name Student Number Questions needing attention DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PSLZODY/ZOIY Term Test 1 Tuesday; October 27, 2007 Duration: one hour Test Aids: None Total number of marks = 27 Total number of questions = 27 Total number of pages = 6 DO NOT BEGIN UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO INSTRUCTIONS 1. Bubble in your last (family) name in top right box ofthe scantron. 2. Bubble in your student number, beginning in the Student Number field. 3. Answer all questions on the scantron. 4. In the "FORM" box on the scantron, indicate which "FORM" (A, B, C or D) is indicated on the top ' of your test pages. - 5. All questions are of equai value. Answer all questions-there is NO penalty for guessing. 6. Spelling and/or typing errors do not make a statement incorrect. 7. Invigilators are not permitted to interpret questions to individual students. If you think a question is ambiguous, answer as you understand it, then explain your reasoning on your question book, not on the Computer Carat-You must also record the question number on the line: “Questions needing attention” at the top of this page. 8. Your scantron and the test book must be'handed in at the end of the examination. FORM A MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or anSWers the question. 1) During thyroid hormone synthesis, which step immediately follows the iodination of tyrosine on thyrogiobulin? ' A) Thyroglobulin is secreted into the colloid by follicular cells. B) The iodinated thyroglobulin is endocytosed by the follicular cell. C) Iodinated thyroglobulin is broken down by enzymes. D) Two iodinated tyrosine resides on the same thyroglobin are iinked. 2) A woman who has thyroid cancer undergoes a surgical thyroidectomy. Which of the following should be prescribed in order to maintain her metabolic rate after her surgery? A) propylthiouracil B) thyroxine _ C) thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) D) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 3) in physiology professor, Penny Wise, is designing an experiment to investigate the effect of various treatments for postmenopausal-related osteoporosis in guinea pigs. Which one of the following will have most impact if injected? A) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) B) growth hormone C) testosterone D) estrogen 4) Which of the following represents interstitial fluid? A) fluid that bathes tissue cells B) fluid inside the gastrointestinal tract C) plasma _ D) fluid that bathes tissue cells and fluid in blood vessels 5) A 50 MWCO membrane is placed between two solutions shown below. To which solution should I - pressure be applied in order to prevent the osmotic flow of water into the solution and why? 10 mM NaCl 5 mM NaCI 5 mM 8 mM glucose glucose A) Solution X, because the concentration of NaCl is higher B) Solution X, because the concentration of glucose is lower C) Solution Y, because the concentration of Neil] is lower D) Solution Y, because the concentration of glucose is higher Page 1 of 6 FORM A 6) Patients who have lost kidney function use a dialysis machine to remove urea from their blood. By what mechanism is urea being removed in during dialysis? A) active transport 13) facilitated diffusion C) filtration D) simple diffusion 7) Imagine that a patient with an inflammatory disease has been treated with high levels of glucocorticoids for a prolonged period. Which of the following would you observe in the patient? A) lower than normal secretion of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) B) higher than normal secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) C) higher than normal protein synthesis in his/her skeletal muscle ‘, D) lower than normal blood glucose concentrations 8) What is_a pharmacological application of oxytocin, and what is its effect? A) Used to enhance female fertility; causes ovulation of secondary oocytes. B) Used in women who have trouble breastfeeding; stimulates milk production. C) Used in childbirth; stimulates smooth muscle contraction of the uterus. D) Used in pregnancy; enhances growth of the endometrium of the uterus. 9) What is a function of cortisol? ' A) stimulates glycogenesis B) stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle C) stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver D) activates the immune system 10) In the CAMP second messenger pathway, what happens immediately after the activation of the G—protein? ' 7 A) adenylate cyclase is activated B) CAMP is converted to AMP . C) cellular proteins are phosphorylated - D) protein kinase A is activated 11) Which of the following is observed in the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle? A) One primordial follicle develops into a tertiary follicle. B) Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is secreted from the corpus luteum. C) Progesterone stimulates the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle. D) Circulating estrogens exert negative feedback at the hypothalamus. 12) Jason spends his winters as a student at U ofT studying indoors and his summers working as a lifeguard at an outdoor pool. What would you expect to be at higher concentration in his blood in the winter in comparison to the summer? ' ' A) parathyroidhormone (PTH) B) calcium C) calcitonin D) calcitriol Page 2 of '6 FORM A 13) Which statement concerning the development of the ovarian follicle and/or the hormones it produces is correct? ’ A) Granulosa cells produce inhibin in response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). B) Thecal cells release androgens in response to Iuteinizing hormone (LH). C) The primordial follicle contains the secondary oocyte. D) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the release of androgens from thecal cells. 14) Which enzymatic step is stimulated by UV light? A) 25—hydroxycholecalciferol to 1,25«dihydroxycholecalciferol B) 25—hydroxycholecalciferol to cholecalciferol C) 7-dehydroxycholesterol to choiecalciferol D) Cholecalciferol to 25—hydroxycholecalciferol 15) In cardiac muscle, Ca2+ is transported out of the muscle following contraction by an ATP-powered pump. What can you conclude about this process based on this information? A) Ca2+ is transported against its electrochemical gradient. B) Ca2+ concentrations are higher inside muscle cells. C) This is an example of facilitated diffusion. D) CaZ+ transport requires activity of Na+/K+ ATP pumps. 16) How many K+ ions are transported across the membrane and in which direction when sodium-potassium (Na+/K+) pumps transport 6 mmoles of Na+ ions across the plasma membrane of a cell? A) 9 millimoles of K+ into the cell B) 9 millimoles of K+ out of the cell C) 4 millimoles of K+ out of the cell 11)) 4 millimoles of K+ into the cell 17) A rat is used to test-a company's new formula for a drug that alters metabolic rate. What are the pre- and post-injection metabolic rates for the rat if the following observations were made during the test? body mass = 250 g pre-injection 02 consumption = 6 ml/min post—injection 02 consumption = 9 ml/min A) pre = 1500 ml 02/Kg/Hr, post = 2250 mi. OZ/Kg/Hr B) pre a 1500 ml 02/Kg/Hr, post = 2160 ml Oz/Kg/i-[r C) pre = 1440 ml 02/Kg/Hr, post = 2160 ml Oz/Kg/Hr D) pre = 1440 ml OZ/Kg/Hr, post = 2880 mL 02/Kg/Hr Page 3 of 6 FORM A 18) A 45- year- old woman has developed acromegaly. Clinical tests reveal that she has higher than normal levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin- like growth factors and somatostatin and lower than normal levels of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). if a tumour Is the cause of the woman’ s acromegaly, where' Is it most likely to be found? ' A) Pancreas B) Liver C) Hypothaiamus D) Anterior-pituitary 19) What is a function of aldosterone? A) helps to decrease blood volume B) causes vasoconstriction C) decreases sodium loss in the urine D) increases lipolysis 20) One of the ways scientists discover hormones is by making extracts of a gland, injecting the extract into animals and then observing the response. What do you think scientists observed when extracts of the adrenal medulla were injected into animals? ' A) blood potassium levels decreased B) blood glI’Icose levels increased C) blood osmolarity increased D) blood pressure decreased 21) Nasser was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. One morning his injects himself somewhat more insulin than is needed for amount of food that he has consumed, but the injection is not fatal. What changes would you expect to observe after the injection? A) The alpha cells in his pancreas wouid release glucagon. B) Fewer glucose transporters would be found on his cells. C) Glucose would be detected in his urine. D) Protein synthesis would be reduced in his muscles. 22) A 55-year—old woman is referred to an endocrinologist complaining of unexplained weight gain, I tiredness, and muscle weakness. She also reports that she needs to wear a heavy sweater to keep warm. - What condition is she mostly likely to be diagnosed with? A) Hypothyroidism B) Addison's disease C) Cushing’s syndrome D) Graves’ disease 23) A variety of endocrine disorders are related to either high or low plasma levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Which of the following pathologies' :5 represented by low piasma cortisol and high plasma ACTH levels? A) Diabetes insipidus B) Addison’s disease C) Cushing’s disease D) Secondary adrenal insufficiency Page 4 of 6 FORM A 24) In Italy in the 171:h and 18th centuries, boys were sometimes castrated (both testes removed} before puberty so that their voices would remain high even in adulthood. In comparison to uncastrated individuals, what difference hormone levels would you expect to observe in the castrated individuals? A) lower luteinizing hormone (LH) B) higher growth hormone (GH) C) higher gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRI—i) D) higher inhibin 25) What is a hormone—response element? A) It is mRNA that is transcribed in response to a hormone. B) it is a protein receptor to which a hormcine binds. C) It is DNA to which a hormone receptor with a hormone binds. D) It is DNA to which a hormone binds. 26) What is the name of the germ cells from which maie gametes develop? A) spermatozoa B) spermatids C) spermatogonia ‘ D) primary spermatocytes Page 5 of 6 FORM A 27) The above experimental set up shows two chambers (X and Y) separated by a membrane that has glucose carriers set at 500 and Na“"/K+ pumps set at 500. (Assume that the pumps are orientated such that the X side of the membrane would be like the intracellular side of the plasma membrane and “ ” side of the membrane would be like the extracellular side of the plasma membrane.) Based on the information on the screen above, what would you observe at the end of this experimental run? A) no movement of Na+ and K"' _ I B) movement of Na+ and 10' stops because there is not adequate ATP C) Na+ moved from Y to X and K+ moved from X to Y D) Na+ moved from X to Y and K+ moved from Y to Page 6 of 6 :5 Name Student Number Questions needing attention DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PSLZOOY/ZOlY Term Test 2 37m i1. Tuesdaypm, 2010 Duration: one hour Test Aids: none Total number of marks = 30 Total number of questions 3 30 Total number of pages = 5 DO NOT BEGIN UNTIi. INSTRUCTED TO DO 50 INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Bubble in your iast (family) name in top right box of the scantron. Bubble in your student number, beginning in the Student Numberfieid. Answer all questions on the scantron. In the "FORM" box on the scantron, indicate which ”FORM” (A, B, C or D) is indicated on the top of your test pages. All questions are of equal vaiue. Answer all questions—there is NO penalty for guessing. Speliing and/or typing errors do not make a statement incorrect. lnvigilators are not permitted to interpret questions to individual students. Ifyou think a question is ambiguous, answer as you understand it, then explain your reasoning on your question book, not on the Computer Card. You must also record the question number on the line: ”Questions needing attention” at the top of this page. Your scantron must be handed in at the end of the examination. You may keep the question booklet. FORM A MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) What is an event that occurs during an action potential? A) During phase 3, Kt channels are rapidly closed. B) Towards the end of phase 1, electrical forCes favour the influx of the K+ ions. C) During phase 2, chemical forces favour the efflux of K?“ ions. D) During phase 1, the membrane potential reaches the equilibrium potential of Na+. 2) Cerebrospinal fluid is produced within the and is reabsorbed into the venous circulation by special structures called the A) choroid plexus : arachnoid villi B) central canal : arachnoid villi C) choroid plexus : subarachnoid space D) central canal : subarachnoid space 3) in order for a neuron to move from the absolute to the relative refractory period, a majority of the neuron's sodium channels must have their ' A) activation gates opened and inactivation gates closed B) inactivation gates opened C) inactivation gates closed D) activation gates closed 4) Identify the ONE CORRECT statement regarding graded potentials. A) Temporal summation requires different types of stimuli. B) Graded potentials can add to generate a greater graded potential. C) Threshold is the level of depolarization necessary to elicit a graded potential. D) Spatial summation requires repeated stimulation close together in time. 5) What determines the frequency of an action potential? A) The distance traveled by the graded potential at the axon hillock. B) The frequency of the graded potential at the axon hillock. C) The duration of the graded potential at the axon hillock. D) The amplitude of the graded potential at the axon hillock. 6) As you gradually stretch a muscle, which of the following happens? A) Actin and myosin won’t be able to fully interact. B) Active force and passive force will increase. C) You will get a flat—line trace. D) Tetanus will occur. Page 1 of 5 FORM A 7) All of the following events will lead to contraction of Skeletal muscle EXCEPT : A) Ca2t release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. B) Depolarization of the sarcolema. C) Ca2+ release from troponin C. D) Cross—bridge formation between myosin and actin. 8) What is the function of the myelin sheath of the axon? A) reduces axonal ion permeability B) decreases axonal conduction velocity C) increases leakage of ions across the axonal membrane D) decreases ion permeability in the nodes of Ranvier 9) The maximum threshold voltage of a nerve is 10 V. What would happen in the nerve if the voltage was increased to 20 V? A) The height of the action potential peak would stay the same. B) The duration of the action potential would increase. C) The height of the action potential peak would decrease. D) The height of the action potential peak would increase. 10) Binding of acetylcholine to receptors causes a by opening channels that permit both sodium and potassium to permeate the membrane. A) muscarinic : hyperpolarization B) nicotinic : depolarization C) muscarinic : depolarization D) nicotinic : hyperpolarization 11) Which of the following is NOT a mechanism whereby neurotransmitters are rapidly removed from the synaptic cleft? A) diffusion out of the cleft B) transport back up the axon to be immediately repackaged C) degradation by enzymes D) active reuptake across the presynaptic membrane 12) Why does metabotropic receptor-induced gating of ion channels take more time to occur than ionotropic receptor-induced gating? A) the ion channels are slower to open B) the ion channels must move to the membrane before gating C) intracellular calcium must increase before the ion channels will open D) the receptor is linked to a G protein Page 2 of 5 FORM A 18) Identify the ONE CORRECT statement regarding the skeletal neuromuscular junction. A) Binding of acetylcholine triggers the closing of Na+ and K+ channels. B) Acetylcholine diffuses across cleft and binds to adrenergic receptors on the motor end plate. C) All neuromuscular junction synapses are excitatory. D) Only a subset of motor neurons releases acetylcholine. 14) Which of the following is NOT a function of astrocytes? A) communicate with neurons through chemical messengers B) remove neurotransmitter fiom the synaptic cleft C) are important for the development of neural connections D) prevent large molecules from crossing the blood-brain barrier 15) When does closure of the atrioventricular valves occur? A) When the papillary muscle contracts. B) When the pressure inside the ventricle is greater than pressure inside the atrium. C) When the pressure inside the ventricle is less than pressure inside the aorta. D) When the atrium contracts. 16) Nerve l is medium in diameter and myelinated, Nerve 2 is small in diameter and myelinated: Nerve 3 is large in diameter and unmyelinated and Nerve 4 is medium in diameter and unmyelinated. Which muscle would you expect to contract first if the nerves are stimulated at the same time? A) Muscle 4 (innervated by Nerve 4) B) Muscle 2 (innervated by Nerve 2) C) Muscle 3 (innervated by Nerve 3) D) Muscle 1 (innervated by Nerve 1) 17) When the ciliary muscles are relaxed, the lens is relatively , allowing the eye to focus on objects that are A) flat : distant B) flat : close C) round : distant D) round : close 18) Which of the following concerning the limbic system is INCORRECT? A) Consolidation of short term memory to long term memory is required to store memory for days. B) Explicit memory deals with learned facts, events, and experiences. C) The amygdala is primarily responsible for fear memory. D) Implicit or procedural memories are consolidated by the hippocampus. Page 3 of 5 FORM A 19) When testing a nerve in the lab, which one of the following would directly block the generation of an action potential? A) 1 drop of acetylcholine dropped on the nerve B) 5 drops of lidocaine dropped on the nerve C) 1 drop of KCl dropped on the nerve D) 5 drops of curare dropped on the nerve 20) If a negatively charged ion is more concentrated outside the cell, the forces required to balance the chemical gradient would be directed . Thus, the equilibrium potential for this ion would be charged. A) inward : positively B) outward : negatively C) outward : positively D) inward : negatively 21) Identify the ONE INCORRECT statement regarding photoreceptors. A) When light is absorbed, the Ca2+ channels become closed. B) Rods are 10 times more sensitive to light than cones. C) In the dark, photoreceptors are hyperpolarized. D) When light is absorbed, retinal and opsin dissociate leading to cGMP hydrolysis. 22) You are testing a frog’s muscle in the lab with different weights hanging from it. When maximally stimulated, the muscle contracts isotonically against a heavy load that it is capable of lifting but just barely. The contraction is slow, and the latent period is: A) long, because it takes more time for the muscle to generate enough force to move the load. B) long, because the muscle is maximally stimulated and showing an all-«oru-nothing response. C) short, because the muscle is maximally stimulated and showing an all-or-nothing response. D) short, because it takes less time for the muscle to generate enough force to move the load. 23) In the absence of active chloride ion transport, what will happen if chloride channels are opened in a cell that has hyperpolarized? A) depolarization of the cell B) movement of chloride equally in both directions C) net movement of chloride into the cell D) net movement of chloride out of the cell 24) What is modified during presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitter release from the axon terminal? A) membrane potential B) the vesicles selected for release C) calcium influx D) potassium channels Page 4 of 5 FORM A 25) Which of the following statements concerning sleep regulation is CORRECT? A) Melanopsin’s peak absorbance is in the red part of the spectrum. B) Orexin acts by facilitating the histaminergic neurons in t...
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