molec - Elements, Atoms, Isotopes etc. Chemical formulas,...

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Unformatted text preview: Elements, Atoms, Isotopes etc. Chemical formulas, Chemical bonds Solutions, Concentrations, pH Organic Chemistry / Biochemistry Key Concepts Or, Chemistry class in one lecture! Element = Building block of matter Contains only atoms with same # of protons Periodic Table of the Elements In human: 11 major essential elements C, O, H , N, S, P, Mg, K, Ca, Fe = trace elements Organic Chemistry = Chemistry of Carbon Structure of Atoms (AKA elements) Some Terminology: Atomic Number Atomic mass Ion Isotope Most common Much rarer Isotopes = Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons. Same Atomic Number, variable Atomic Mass Heavy water = ? 3 types of radiation: 1. radiation protons and neutrons 1. (If protons are emitted, the element changes!) 2. radiation - electrons 3. radiation: high energy waves, not particles More stable atom of same element Some isotopes are unstable: R adioisotopes Nuclear Medicine: Nuclear Medicine: use of radioisotopes in diagnosis & treatment of disease. 127I is normal iodine 131I has 4 extra neutrons Medical Imaging ? Treatment? and radiation Importance of Electrons in Physiology Ion formation = gain or loss of electrons Bond formation between atoms molecules Energy capture & transfer Free radical formation Ions are often called electrolytes! The Chemistry of Life Elements = Atoms Nucleus Protons Neutrons Orbit Electrons Atoms Atomic number The number of protons, usually also equals the number of electrons. Atoms must be neutral Atoms/molecules that are stable will not bond with other atoms/molecules. Shells or Orbits Each electron shell can hold a specific number of electrons Shell 1 = 2e Shell 2 = 8e Shell 3 = 18e Electron Bonding Outermost shell contains all pairs of electrons Stable Outermost shell contains at least one unpaired electron Unstable Lose, gain or share electrons to become stable An atom is most stable when each electron is paired! Chemical Bonds Ionic: electrons pulled from one atom to another: Na+ and Cl- Covalent: electrons shared equally: C --- C Hydrogen: weak attraction between H atoms and O, N, and Fl. Causes surface tension in water. Van der Waals forces: weak attractions between nuclei of atoms Chemical Bonds Ions More (or less) electrons than protons Ionic Bonds Anions Negative Cations Positive Ionic Bonds Give away or receive electrons to create ions and for each ion to become more stable Ions of opposite charge bind with each other to form an ionic bond An ionic bond typically includes a metal NaCl Ionic Bonding Important Ions in Physiology cations anions Chemical Bonds Covalent Polar Non-polar Covalent Bonds Strong bonds that occur when two atoms share electrons in order to become more stable Covalent Bonds Non-polar Covalent Bonds...
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2011 for the course BIO 202 taught by Professor Benking during the Spring '11 term at UT Chattanooga.

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molec - Elements, Atoms, Isotopes etc. Chemical formulas,...

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