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respiration - PHYSIOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL...

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PHYSIOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION
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EXTERNAL RESPIRATION EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
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Respiration Respiration Movement of gases between the environment and the body’s cells The exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs Known as ventilation or breathing Inspiration and Expiration The exchanges of O 2 and CO 2 between the lungs and the blood Transport of O 2 and CO 2 by the blood The exchange of gases between blood and the cells
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RESPIRATION RESPIRATION
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Anatomy of the Respiratory Anatomy of the Respiratory System System Nasal Concha Air eddies Air is cleaned Warmed Humidified Tonsils and Adenoids Lymph nodes that filter the air Located in the nose, back of the throat, below the tongue
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Larynx Larynx Contains Vocal Cords Connective tissue bands that tighten to create sound when air moves past them Thyroid Cartilage Sensitive to Testosterone levels
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Trachea Trachea Conducts Air Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Cilia can be paralyzed by cigarette smoke Surrounded by C-shaped Cartilagenous rings and the trachealis muscle Esophagus is dorsal to the trachea Approximately 4 inches long
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Conducting System or Conducting System or Respiratory Tree Respiratory Tree Primary Bronchi Surrounded by O-shaped cartilagenous rings Bifurcates to Secondary Bronchi in the lungs Respiratory Bronchioles Surrounded by smooth muscles Diameter of the airways becomes progressively smaller from the trachea to the bronchioles The total cross-sectional area increases with each division of the airways
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Pleural Membranes Pleural Membranes Visceral Pleura Attached directly to the lungs Parietal Pleura Attaches to the visceral pleura Also attaches to the thoracic cavity Serous Fluid Separates the two pleura and lubricates in order to decrease friction Consistency of egg whites Pleurisy occurs when the fluid decreases The Function of the Pleural Membranes is to hold the lungs open
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Alveoli Alveoli Clustered at the ends of the terminal bronchioles Makes up the bulk of lung tissue Primary function is the exchange of gases between themselves and the blood Surrounded by elastic fibers Creates Elastic Recoil
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Capillaries Capillaries The alveoli are closely associated with an extensive network of capillaries Blood vessels cover 80-90% of the alveolar surface forming a continuous “sheet” of blood in close contact with the air-filled alveoli
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Respiratory Membrane Respiratory Membrane Consists of The Wall of the Alveoli The Respiratory Space This is a fluid filled space Pneumonia may cause the space to fill with more fluid than normal This decreases the ability to exchange gases The Wall of the Capillary
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