Study_Guide_for_Final_Exam

Study_Guide_for_Final_Exam - Study Guide for Final Exam...

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Study Guide for Final Exam This is a majority of what your should know for the test. There will be 2 extra credit points. 1. Be able to look at cells and determine which phase of mitosis they are in. 2. Be able to put the mitotic phases in order Prophase - The mitotic spindle begins to form and this is the structure that will pull chromosomes into their daughter cells. Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes. Centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell. Sister chromatids are attached at the centromeres. Prometaphase - The nucleolus disappears and the nuclear envelope disassociates. Spindle fibers attach to kinetochore. Metaphase - Chromatids become arranged on metaphase plate of spindle as the centromeres become attached to the spindle fibers Anaphase - Centromeres divide and the chromatids are separated as they are pulled to opposite poles of the cell. Telophase - A cleavage furrow in animal cells or cell plate in plant cells forms between the poles and cytokinesis occurs. 3. Be able to create a punnet square with one or two traits 4. Understand the laws of probability and how they relate to genetics The probability of a specific outcome is 1 divided by the total number of possible outcomes The total probability of independent random events is the product of the individual probabilities (AND) The total probability of two independent events (OR) is found by the addition of the individual probabilities. The law of probability apply to the inheritance of genes. It mostly applies to the formation of gametes and Mendel’s Law of Segregation 5. Understand co-dominance, heterozygous, homozygous, recessive, dominant, genotype and phenotype. Codominance - heterozygotes have the phenotype associated with both alleles present. Heterozygous - having two different alleles for a particular gene Homozygous - having two identical alleles for a particular gene Recessive - an allele whose phenotypic effect is observed only in homozygous individuals. Dominant - referring to an allele that determines the phenotype of a heterozygous individual
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Genotype - the actual alleles Phenotype - how the alleles are expressed in the individual progeny 6. Know Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment. The principle of segregation stated that during the formation of egg and sperm, the alleles of genes must separate into different gametes. This caused each gamete to only have one allele of each gene. Mendel created the principle of segregation to explain the 3:1 ratio which he observed in the F 2 generation of two pure lines. Later research proved that Mendel’s principle of segregation was correct.
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Study_Guide_for_Final_Exam - Study Guide for Final Exam...

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