BIO Chapter 16 notes

BIO Chapter 16 notes - Core enzyme attaches and make RNA...

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Chapter 16 **DNA always starts with 5’ going towards 3’ Central dogma o Every protein made in body must have gene o In every cell o Don’t express all genes in all cells o Genes are all in the cell, but different cells express different genes o 2 step process Transcription RNA copy Code in DNA to RNA Replication bubble where the gene is Looks for promoters Attaches to DNA Makes an RNA copy to a DNA template Opens up one small region Adds RNA nucleotides to DNA template Has a promoter end and terminator end Translation RNA copy in amino acids to make protein RNA code to protein language Finding corresponding letters and codes to be able to translate In prokaryotic cell, processes occur simultaneously because nucleus is unbounded Eukaryotic cell, transcription in nucleus, then translation outside of nucleus RNA polymerase o Aka holoenzyme Sigma + core enzyme Sigma attaches to the DNA Sigma identifies where to start reading gene(DNA) Sigma locates where promoter is Attaches to gene
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Unformatted text preview: Core enzyme attaches and make RNA copy Sigma detaches and core enzyme finishes the job • Prokaryotic Transcription Initiation o Promoters locations, where is starts, = the promoter area Sigma recognizes these spots Sigma initiates the transcription process then detaches -35 box • Pribnow box • TTGACA • 35 letters up -10 box • Tata box • TATAA • 10 letters up o sigma opens the -10box promoter and pulls it into the core enzyme area DNA separates to make RNA copy o Mg region identifies the region where the transcription is taking place o Downstream DNA is never transcribed • Transcription elongation and Termination o Elongation Continue to read the DNA Transcribe a piece of mRNA (growing RNA strand) Reaches a termination sequence o Termination Know it’s the end of gene RNA pulls off DNA closes up again • Reading and assembling DNA direction (3’ and 5’) is important to know •...
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BIO Chapter 16 notes - Core enzyme attaches and make RNA...

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