Chapter 6 - A Tour of the Cell

Chapter 6 - A Tour of the Cell - Chapter 6 Class Notes A...

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Chapter 6 Class Notes – A Tour of the Cell – Page 1 Max Sauberman AP Biology Class Notes Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Discovery of Cells: In 1665, Robert Hooke discovered cells while looking at a thin slice of cork (a Portuguese tree). He described the cells as tiny boxes or honeycomb structures. He thought that cells only existed in plants and fungi. Anton van Leuwenhoek: In 1673, van Leuwenhoek used a handmade microscope to observe pond scum, and discovered single-celled organisms that he called animalcules. He observed that cells can also be found in animals. Robert Brown: Brown was a Scottish botanist that discovered the cellular nucleus. He, a botanist, also created the basis of KTM, a major breakthrough in physics. 150-200 Year Gap: Between the age of Hooke and van Leuwenhoek, and the middle of the 19 th century, very little cell advancements were made, due to the widely accepted traditional belief in spontaneous generation. It was believed that maggots were made from raw meat, and mice were formed from dirty clothes. Humans were also unable to magnify any further until the optics got better. Development of the Cell Theory: In 1838, Matthias Schleiden concluded all plant parts are made of cells. In 1839, Theodor Schwann, a friend of Schleiden, stated that all animal tissues are composed of cells. In 1858, Rudolf Virchow concluded that all cells must arise from preexisting cells. The Basic Components of the Cell Theory: 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells (Schleiden and Schwann) 2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things (Schleiden and Schwann) 3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells (Virchow)
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Chapter 6 Class Notes – A Tour of the Cell – Page 2 The Modern Cell Theory: In addition to the original cell theory… 1. The cell contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 2. All cells are practically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities. 3. All basic chemical and physiological functions are carried out inside the cell. 4. Cell activity depends on the activities of subcellular structures within the cell. The Importance of Cells: All organisms are made of cells. The cell is the simplest collection of matter than can live. Cell structure is correlated to cell function. All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells. Microscopy: To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry. Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye. Light Microscope (LM): In a light microscope (LM), visible light passes through a specimen and then through glass lenses, which magnify the image. The minimum resolution of an LM is about 200 nm. Light microscopes can magnify effectively to 1000x the size of the actual specimen.
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Chapter 6 - A Tour of the Cell - Chapter 6 Class Notes A...

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