Chapter 5 - The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

Chapter 5 - The Structure and Function of Macromolecules -...

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Chapter 4 Class Notes – The Structure and Function of Macromolecules – Page 1 Max Sauberman AP Biology Class Notes Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Macromolecules: Small organic molecules are joined together to form large macromolecules, composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms. Polymers: A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers. Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are polymers. An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers. The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers: Monomers form larger molecules by condensation reactions (formation of water = condensation) called dehydration synthesis. Polymers are disassembled through hydrolysis, the reverse of dehydration synthesis. The addition of a water molecule breaks a bond. In a dehydration synthesis, the OH on one monomer bonds to the H of another monomer, and forms a water molecule, that leaves, and a covalent bond is formed. In hydrolysis, the addition of water causes the OH and H of two monomers to separate, so the bond breaks, breaking the polymer into two monomers. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are sugars and their polymers. The simplest sugars are monosaccharides, and carbohydrate polymers are polysaccharides. Carbohydrates contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Sugars: All monosaccharide sugars have molecular formulas that are multiples of CH 2 O. Glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 , is the most common monosaccharide. Sugars are classified by the location of their carbonyl group and the number of carbons: Triose sugars have three carbons. Pentose sugars, like ribose, have five carbons.
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Chapter 4 Class Notes – The Structure and Function of Macromolecules – Page 2 Hexose sugars, like glucose, have six carbons. An aldose sugar has its carbonyl group on the end of the carbon skeleton (aldehyde sugar). A ketose sugar has its carbonyl group in the middle of the carbon skeleton (ketone sugar). Monosaccharides serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides assume ringed structure (much stronger than linear). The glucose ring has six sides: five carbons are in the ring, and one oxygen is in the ring. Disaccharides: A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides: forming a glycosidic linkage, the covalent bond between the two monosaccharide monomers. It’s a linkage because oxygen is acting as a bridge between the two monomers. Oxygen will be in the middle of the glycosidic linkage: two covalent bonds working in harmony. Maltose is the disaccharide of two glucose monomers. Sucrose is the disaccharide of a glucose monomer and a fructose monomer. Polysaccharides:
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Chapter 5 - The Structure and Function of Macromolecules -...

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