34 - Econ 196 Lecture The Economics of Immigration David...

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Econ 196 Lecture The Economics of Immigration David Card
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Main Questions 1. What are the characteristics of immigrants (and “second generation” immigrants)? 2. Why do people immigrate? Does that help explain the characteristics of immigrants? 3. How does immigration affect the labor market? 4. Do immigrants “assimilate” once they arrive? 5. How does the second generation do?
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Question 1 How many immigrants are there, where do they come from, where do they live. ... Currently, US has about 14% immigrants 11% “second generation” The main sources: Mexico 31% other Latin Am. 23% Asia 27% Europe 13% r.o.w. 6%
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Fraction of Immigrants in Various Countries Today 10 Years Ago United States 13.6 10.8 Australia 25.0 23.2 New Zealand 21.6 16.5 Canada 20.1 17.8 Ireland 15.7 7.8 Austria 14.2 11.2 Spain 13.4 3.2 Sweden 13.4 11.0 Netherlands 10.7 9.6 United Kingdom 10.2 7.4 France 8.5 7.3
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Distribution of Population: 1st Gen, 2nd Gen, 3rd+ Gen 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 to 4 years 5 to 9 years 10 to 14 years 15 to 19 years 20 to 24 years 25 to 29 years 30 to 34 years 35 to 39 years 40 to 44 years 45 to 49 years 50 to 54 years 55 to 59 years 60 to 64 years 65 to 69 years 70 to 74 years 75 to 79 years 80 to 84 years 85 years and over Fraction of Total Population 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd+ Generation
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On average: - immigrants are younger, less educated - immigrants earn less - immigrants are concentrated in a few states BUT: - immigrants are “more diverse” than natives - immigrants are over-represented in the “tails” of the education and earnings distributions - characteristics are very different for Latin Am. immigrants and other immigrants
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Characteristics of Adults by Generation 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd+ Generation Men Women Men Women Men Women Years Education 12.2 12.4 14.0 14.1 13.6 13.8 BA Degree (%) 29.0 30.0 36.8 39.5 30.5 31.8 Advanced Degree (%) 12.2 10.0 13.1 13.7 10.2 10.5 Hispanic (%) 52.6 45.8 32.7 31.9 5.3 5.4 Black (%) 8.6 9.7 4.4 5.4 12.4 14.6 Asian (%) 21.6 25.6 10.5 10.4 1.0 1.0 Work Last Year (%) 83.2 61.8 82.2 74.5 79.4 71.9 Hourly Wage 22.28 18.54 27.91 22.23 26.88 20.26 Poor (%) 13.2 16.3 6.5 8.0 7.6 10.6 Source: 2007-2009 Current Population Survey. Includes people age 24-64 only.
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Education of Natives and Immigrants Natives All Hispanic non-Hispanic Avg. Years Education 13.7 12.3 10.2 14.3 Dropouts (%) 7.9 30.0 50.3 9.8 High School Grads (%) 31.1 24.6 26.8 22.4 Some College (%) 29.3 16.1 12.7 19.5 College or More (%) 31.6 29.5 10.2 48.2
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34 - Econ 196 Lecture The Economics of Immigration David...

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