io6 NATIONALIS M AN D SEXUALIT Y mothers. Fatherhood, however, was not as important in the image of man, even though the father as head of the bourgeois family was also idealized. The ideal male, based upon the image of Greek youth, was part of the community of men, the Mannerbund, dis-cussed in the last chapter. Interestingly enough, Krafft-Ebing never showed any compassion toward lesbians (who, he thought, pos-sessed a male soul in a female body) in the way that he did, late in his life, toward male homosexuals. This was all the more serious if we remember that Krafft-Ebing in common with many of his col-leagues in the medical profession believed that sexual anomalies determined a person's ethical, aesthetic, and social development. 68 At the end of the nineteenth century, respectability sought to tighten its hold over women. It is no coincidence that such a tight-ening took place when the movement for women's rights was get-ting started and male homosexuals as well as lesbians began to emerge from the shadows and cautiously attempt to affirm their own identities. Lesbian characters in pre-iSyo European fiction had not ap-peared particularly evil. Only after that date were they turned into moral and medical problems. 69
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male homosexuals, lesbian characters, Renee Vivienne, male homosexual counterpart, re-iSyo European fiction