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23 - A merican Studies 10 F rom J FK to B akke The Rise of...

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American Studies 10 November 23, 2009 From JFK to Bakke : The Rise of Affirmative Action in Higher Education I. Introduction A. Lecture thesis 1. Original rationale for affirmative action – to translate nondiscrimination laws into nondiscrimination practices 2. Bureaucratic pragmatism, political opportunism, and the birth of affirmative action 3. Affirmative action, African Americans, and redress of historic discrimination 4. Affirmative action transformed – beyond African Americans and on behalf of promoting racial diversity II. Two Definitions of Affirmative Action A. President Kennedy and Executive Order 10925 (1961) – origins of the term “affirmative action” and affirmative action as equality of opportunity. Kennedy was the first to use “Affirmative Action” Federal contractors (those receiving government funds) must take affirmative action to not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment.” Coined by Hobart Taylor, Jr. in 1961 LBJ asked Taylor to meet, and Johnson presented to Taylor the draft of Executive Order. Taylor chose “affirmative” action over “positive” action. Affirmative action was initially recruiting measures
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B. President Johnson’s “To Fulfill These Rights” Speech (1965) – affirmative action as equality of results (proportional representation: parity model) What was needed was not just equality not just as a theory, but equality as a fact and a result Equality of Results took form as proportional representation Proportional representation took form as parity models C. Or, put another way, affirmative action as a response to disparate treatment vs. affirmative action as a response to disparate impact III. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
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