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28 - American/28/09(Re)Segregation Second Class Houses and...

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American Studies 10 10/28/09 (Re)Segregation: Second Class Houses and Second Class Schools I. Brown at 55: How did we get here? A. The distinction between de facto and de jure segregation obscures more than it reveals De facto implies a segregation that arises almost by accident “De facto shouldn’t be outlawed because it is natural” B. In claiming that segregation is only wrong because it is harmful to the Brown ruling is vulnerable to counterclaims regarding the relative harmfulness of desegregation policies Brown doesn’t specifically say that segregation is bad II. De facto or De jure : According to the Law or In Fact A. Residential Segregation was no accident B. GI Bill: Housing and Education for All (whites) Between 1945 and 1954, the U.S. added 14 million homes Growing demand for homes lead to a suburban boom Doors opened to whites was shut to blacks Blocked blacks from getting loans for homes No clauses that explicitly segregating blacks; no de jure . De facto begat more de facto . C. Federal Housing Authority & Home Owners Loan Corporation: Redlining, steering, zoning Both agencies deemed black neighborhoods “uncredit-worthy” Denied them loans and credit “Redline communities” – communities where loans were denied Real estate agencies practiced steering; showing & selling houses to people according to race Zoning regulations: even if blacks were fortunate to buy houses in white neighborhoods, they were limited by restrictive covenants D. Restrictive Covenants and Neighborhood Associations Designed to keep black families out Federally funded and locally operated segregated black projects E.
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